Special Issue "The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Skeletal Structures"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Geological Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 August 2022 | Viewed by 2613

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hildegard Westphal
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT), 28359 Bremen, Germany
2. Department of Geosciences, Bremen University, Fahrenheit Str.6, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
Interests: carbonate sedimentology; sea-level change; ocean acidification; nutrification; paleology
Prof. Dr. Justin Ries
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 01908, USA
Interests: ocean acidification; global warming; global oceanic change; calcium carbonate; biomineralization; limestone; paleoceanography
Dr. Steve Doo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT), 28359 Bremen, Germany
Interests: ecophysiology; large benthic foraminifers; calcification; carbonate production; ocean acidification; ocean warming

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have led to a decrease in ocean pH, known as ocean acidification (OA). The effect of OA on calcium carbonate precipitation and subsequent potential dissolution in carbonate depositional systems such as coral reefs is a hotly debated topic, in particular as complex and partly contrasting effects are observed. The Special Issue aims to bring together current knowledge on OA in carbonate depositional ecosystems in perspective and review papers, and the latest research results, to provide a basis for this ongoing discussion. These ecosystems include but are not limited to coral reefs, oyster reefs, calcifying algae (maerl beds), etc. in which calcifiers are the predominant reef engineer. Thus, we invite contributions on new research outcomes in skeletal precipitation and structure (from individuals to communities), physiological mechanisms that underpin complex host and symbiont interactions, and responses of heterotrophic and phototrophic calcifiers (e.g., calcification rates, stability of skeletons, encrustation, and cementation) under projected OA conditions. The goal is to contribute to a better understanding of what to expect for the future of carbonate depositional systems, resilience, and potential avenues for counteracting negative effects on calcification triggered by increasing CO2 concentrations.

We especially encourage early-career researchers from Global South countries to submit their findings to this Special Issue.

High-quality papers are encouraged for publication related to various aspects, as mentioned below:

  • Influence on CO2 on marine calcification;
  • Trophic strategies and their relation to OA effects;
  • Physiology behind calcification under OA conditions;
  • Experimental approaches;
  • Field approaches;
  • Earth history analogues;
  • Developments in analytical techniques to study skeletal structures in the context of OA.

If you are interested in contributing to the Special Issue but may not able to meet the deadline, please do not hesitate to contact us. As we aim for an interesting compilation of state-of-the-art and novel insights, we invite you to contribute your view to this growing Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Hildegard Westphal
Prof. Dr. Justin Ries
Dr. Steve Doo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ocean acidification
  • Coral reefs
  • Calcification
  • Carbonate depositional systems
  • Skeletal structure
  • Resilience
  • Effects on ecosystems and biodiversity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Skeletal Structures
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060786 - 08 Jun 2022
Viewed by 315
Abstract
It is well known that the increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) is reducing surface ocean pH, a process known as ocean acidification (OA) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Skeletal Structures)

Research

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Article
Artificial Intelligence as a Tool to Study the 3D Skeletal Architecture in Newly Settled Coral Recruits: Insights into the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Coral Biomineralization
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10030391 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
Understanding the formation of the coral skeleton has been a common subject uniting various marine and materials study fields. Two main regions dominate coral skeleton growth: Rapid Accretion Deposits (RADs) and Thickening Deposits (TDs). These have been extensively characterized at the 2D level, [...] Read more.
Understanding the formation of the coral skeleton has been a common subject uniting various marine and materials study fields. Two main regions dominate coral skeleton growth: Rapid Accretion Deposits (RADs) and Thickening Deposits (TDs). These have been extensively characterized at the 2D level, but their 3D characteristics are still poorly described. Here, we present an innovative approach to combine synchrotron phase contrast-enhanced microCT (PCE-CT) with artificial intelligence (AI) to explore the 3D architecture of RADs and TDs within the coral skeleton. As a reference study system, we used recruits of the stony coral Stylophora pistillata from the Red Sea, grown under both natural and simulated ocean acidification conditions. We thus studied the recruit’s skeleton under both regular and morphologically-altered acidic conditions. By imaging the corals with PCE-CT, we revealed the interwoven morphologies of RADs and TDs. Deep-learning neural networks were invoked to explore AI segmentation of these regions, to overcome limitations of common segmentation techniques. This analysis yielded highly-detailed 3D information about the RAD’s and TD’s architecture. Our results demonstrate how AI can be used as a powerful tool to obtain 3D data essential for studying coral biomineralization and for exploring the effects of environmental change on coral growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Skeletal Structures)
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Article
Mussels Repair Shell Damage despite Limitations Imposed by Ocean Acidification
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10030359 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 596
Abstract
Bivalves frequently withstand shell damage that must be quickly repaired to ensure survival. While the processes that underlie larval shell development have been extensively studied within the context of ocean acidification (OA), it remains unclear whether shell repair is impacted by elevated p [...] Read more.
Bivalves frequently withstand shell damage that must be quickly repaired to ensure survival. While the processes that underlie larval shell development have been extensively studied within the context of ocean acidification (OA), it remains unclear whether shell repair is impacted by elevated pCO2. To better understand the stereotypical shell repair process, we monitored mussels (Mytilus edulis) with sublethal shell damage that breached the mantle cavity within both field and laboratory conditions to characterize the deposition rate, composition, and integrity of repaired shell. Results were then compared with a laboratory experiment wherein mussels (Mytilus trossulus) repaired shell damage in one of seven pCO2 treatments (400–2500 µatm). Shell repair proceeded through distinct stages; an organic membrane first covered the damaged area (days 1–15), followed by the deposition of calcite crystals (days 22–43) and aragonite tablets (days 51–69). OA did not impact the ability of mussels to close drill holes, nor the microstructure, composition, or integrity of end-point repaired shell after 10 weeks, as measured by µCT and SEM imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and mechanical testing. However, significant interactions between pCO2, the length of exposure to treatment conditions, the strength and inorganic content of shell, and the physiological condition of mussels within OA treatments were observed. These results suggest that while OA does not prevent adult mussels from repairing or mineralizing shell, both OA and shell damage may elicit stress responses that impose energetic constraints on mussel physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Skeletal Structures)
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