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Special Issue "Tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) Infections"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 4058

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Sotgiu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Statistics Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
Interests: tuberculosis; NTM; respiratory infections; epidemiology; medical statistics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycobacterial infections can represent an important clinical and public health threat worldwide. Tuberculosis (TB), together with malaria and HIV/AIDS, is one of the most important infectious diseases in terms of incidence and mortality. The heterogeneous geographical distribution of TB cases is characterized by a high incidence in low- and middle-income countries. However, several TB outbreaks have been described in hospitals, schools, or congregate settings located in high-income countries. The emergence and spread of TB/HIV co-infection and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) have contributed to complicate the clinical and public health management of the disease.

Furthermore, several authors have described an increased incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease. Pulmonary and extra-pulmonary forms have been diagnosed in immunocompromised patients and in individuals with chronic medical conditions (e.g., bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). New efforts in the research field are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of NTM infections, to assess the accuracy of new diagnostic approaches and the efficacy of novel therapeutic interventions.

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Sotgiu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • MDR-TB, XDR-TB
  • NTM

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Tuberculosis and Silicosis Burden in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners in a Large Occupational Health Outreach Programme in Zimbabwe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111031 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Artisanal and small-scale miners (ASMs) labour under archaic working conditions and are exposed to high levels of silica dust. Exposure to silica dust has been associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis and silicosis. ASMs are highly mobile and operate in remote areas [...] Read more.
Artisanal and small-scale miners (ASMs) labour under archaic working conditions and are exposed to high levels of silica dust. Exposure to silica dust has been associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis and silicosis. ASMs are highly mobile and operate in remote areas with near absent access to health services. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis, silicosis and silico-tuberculosis among ASMs in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 October to 31 January 2021 on a convenient sample of 514 self-selected ASMs. We report the results from among those ASMs who attended an outreach medical facility and an occupational health clinic. Data were collected from clinical records using a precoded data proforma. Data variables included demographic (age, sex), clinical details (HIV status, GeneXpert results, outcomes of chest radiographs, history of tuberculosis) and perceived exposure to mine dust. Of the 464 miners screened for silicosis, 52 (11.2%) were diagnosed with silicosis, while 17 (4.0%) of 422 ASMs were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). Of the 373 ASMs tested for HIV, 90 (23.5%) were sero-positive. An HIV infection was associated with a diagnosis of silicosis. There is need for a comprehensive occupational health service package, including TB and silicosis surveillance, for ASMs in Zimbabwe. These are preliminary and limited findings, needing confirmation by more comprehensive studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) Infections)
Article
Spatiotemporal Patterns of Tuberculosis in Hunan Province, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136778 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a bacterial pathogen worldwide. China has the third highest TB burden in the world, with a high reported burden in Hunan Province (amongst others). This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of TB [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a bacterial pathogen worldwide. China has the third highest TB burden in the world, with a high reported burden in Hunan Province (amongst others). This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of TB and identify socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental drivers in Hunan Province, China. Numbers of reported cases of TB were obtained from the Tuberculosis Control Institute of Hunan Province, China. A wide range of covariates were collected from different sources, including from the Worldclim database, and the Hunan Bureau of Statistics. These variables were summarized at the county level and linked with TB notification data. Spatial clustering of TB was explored using Moran’s I statistic and the Getis–Ord statistic. Poisson regression models were developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using a Bayesian approach with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. A total of 323,340 TB cases were reported to the Hunan TB Control Institute from 2013 to 2018. The mean age of patients was 51.7 years (SD + 17.6 years). The majority of the patients were male (72.6%, n = 234,682) and had pulmonary TB (97.5%, n = 315,350). Of 319,825 TB patients with registered treatment outcomes, 306,107 (95.7%) patients had a successful treatment outcome. The annual incidence of TB decreased over time from 85.5 per 100,000 population in 2013 to 76.9 per 100,000 population in 2018. TB case numbers have shown seasonal variation, with the highest number of cases reported during the end of spring and the beginning of summer. Spatial clustering of TB incidence was observed at the county level, with hotspot areas detected in the west part of Hunan Province. The spatial clustering of TB incidence was significantly associated with low sunshine exposure (RR: 0.86; 95% CrI: 0.74, 0.96) and a low prevalence of contraceptive use (RR: 0.88; 95% CrI: 0.79, 0.98). Substantial spatial clustering and seasonality of TB incidence were observed in Hunan Province, with spatial patterns associated with environmental and health care factors. This research suggests that interventions could be more efficiently targeted at locations and times of the year with the highest transmission risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) Infections)
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Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010305 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and tuberculosis (TB) together impose a high disease burden in terms of both mortality and health economics worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and tuberculosis (TB) together impose a high disease burden in terms of both mortality and health economics worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients with T2DM in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed, and adult T2DM patients (n = 299) were included. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the LTBI-associated risk factors in patients with T2DM. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between T2DM and LTBI and was adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalence of LTBI in patients with T2DM was 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0–15.0%). There was no significant difference in the socio-demographic characteristics between LTBI and non-LTBI subjects. No significant difference in the smoking status, the duration of smoking, and the duration of T2DM, HbA1c, or treatments was observed. Interestingly, a higher level of education was observed to be associated with a lower prevalence of LTBI in T2DM patients (aOR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.70, p = 0.02). Although the prevalence of LTBI in T2DM was low, it is important to screen for it in T2DM patients due to the risk of developing severe active TB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) Infections)
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