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Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)

1
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
Department of Haematology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
3
Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
4
Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu 21300, Terengganu, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010305
Received: 7 November 2020 / Revised: 24 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 4 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) Infections)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and tuberculosis (TB) together impose a high disease burden in terms of both mortality and health economics worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients with T2DM in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed, and adult T2DM patients (n = 299) were included. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the LTBI-associated risk factors in patients with T2DM. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between T2DM and LTBI and was adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalence of LTBI in patients with T2DM was 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0–15.0%). There was no significant difference in the socio-demographic characteristics between LTBI and non-LTBI subjects. No significant difference in the smoking status, the duration of smoking, and the duration of T2DM, HbA1c, or treatments was observed. Interestingly, a higher level of education was observed to be associated with a lower prevalence of LTBI in T2DM patients (aOR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.70, p = 0.02). Although the prevalence of LTBI in T2DM was low, it is important to screen for it in T2DM patients due to the risk of developing severe active TB. View Full-Text
Keywords: latent tuberculosis infection; type 2 diabetes mellitus; tuberculin skin test; prevalence; risk factors latent tuberculosis infection; type 2 diabetes mellitus; tuberculin skin test; prevalence; risk factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Ping, P.A.; Zakaria, R.; Islam, M.A.; Yaacob, L.H.; Muhamad, R.; Wan Mohamad, W.M.Z.; Yusoff, H.M. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 305. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010305

AMA Style

Ping PA, Zakaria R, Islam MA, Yaacob LH, Muhamad R, Wan Mohamad WMZ, Yusoff HM. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):305. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010305

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ping, Phan Ai, Rosnani Zakaria, Md Asiful Islam, Lili Husniati Yaacob, Rosediani Muhamad, Wan Mohamad Zahiruddin Wan Mohamad, and Harmy Mohamed Yusoff. 2021. "Prevalence and Risk Factors of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 1: 305. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010305

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