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Special Issue "Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicology and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 15670

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Mei-Fang Chien
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Department of Environmental Studies for Advanced Society, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
Interests: environmental pollution; heavy metals; organic pollutants; bioremediation; phytoremediation; rhizoremediation; bioenergy and biofuels; resource recovery; microbial and genetic engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce the Special Issue entitled “Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution”. Toxic metals generally refer to (1) heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and mercury; (2) semi-metallic elements such as arsenic and selenium; and (3) compounds of the above elements, which have negative effects on people’s health. Both their natural sources including volcanic activity and the geological weathering of metal-containing minerals, as well as anthropogenic sources such as mining, industrial, and agricultural activities, have resulted in their widespread distribution in the environment. Their toxicity depends on many factors, such as their chemical species, amount of intake, and exposure process, and some of them have been classified as human carcinogens. Further, as elements, toxic metal pollutants cannot be degraded like organic pollutants, and tend to accumulate within the ecological chain, raising concerns over their impact on human health and the environment.

This Special Issue focuses on the current state of knowledge which links the evaluation of toxic metal pollutions and their impact on the environment, including human health. New research articles, reviews, and case studies are welcome to this Issue. We invite contributions from different disciplines, including environment survey, risk management, health impact assessment, environmental remediation, and environmental strategy. The following topics are examples which could be addressed in this Special Issue:

  • Reports of environment surveys to address toxic metal pollution in the soil/water/air environment of a stated area or country.
  • Research on new approaches to evaluate/monitor toxic metals.
  • Research on the ecological response to toxic metal pollutions, including microbes, animals, and plants.
  • Research on the assessment of the risks posed by toxic metals to human health or ecological systems;
  • Research on new approaches to purify/remediate toxic metal pollution from contaminated environments.

Dr. Mei-Fang Chien
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health risk assessment
  • toxic metals
  • carcinogen
  • environmental monitoring
  • bioaccumulation
  • environmental remediation
  • biomarker
  • environmental strategy
  • ecosystem resilience

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) Gene and Plasma Arsenic and the Effect on Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074404 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 677
Abstract
When poisons enter the human body, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) will increase and cause damage to tissues through oxidative stress or inflammatory reaction. In previous studies, arsenic (As) has known to cause many health problems. Some studies have shown that As exposure is [...] Read more.
When poisons enter the human body, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) will increase and cause damage to tissues through oxidative stress or inflammatory reaction. In previous studies, arsenic (As) has known to cause many health problems. Some studies have shown that As exposure is negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), or with the prevalence of proteinuria. At present, there are few studies focusing on the effects of As exposure and TNF-α single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to eGFR; thus, this study was intended to explore the interactions between TNF-α SNPs and plasma As and their effects on eGFR. A cohort of 500 adults, aged 30 to 70 years, was randomly selected from Taiwan Biobank (TWB). We used the gene chip to screen out seven SNPs of the TNF-α gene and used the results, combined with questionnaires, biochemical tests, and stored plasma samples from the TWB, for the analysis of As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After adjustments for BMI, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, kidney stones, and smoking habits, multiple regression statistics were performed to explore the interaction between SNPs and plasma As with eGFR. In this sample of the general population, plasma As had a significant association with the decline of eGFR (β (SE) = −7.92 (1.70), p < 0.0001). TNF-α gene SNP rs1800629 had the property of regulating TNF-α, which interacts with plasma As; individuals with the AG type had a significantly lower eGFR than those with the GG type, by 9.59 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p < 0.05), which, regarding the dominant model, could infer that the A allele is a risk allele. SNP rs769177 had no interaction with plasma As; however, participants with the TT or TC type had significantly higher eGFR levels than the CC carriers, by 4.02 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p < 0.05). While rs769176 interacted with plasma As, if a person with the TC type had a higher plasma As concentration, that would sustain higher eGFR. This study found that certain SNPs of the TNF-α gene would be robust to the decline of eGFR caused by As exposure. Still, we need further research to confirm the protective regulation mechanism of these SNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Estimation of Target Hazard Quotients and Potential Health Risks for Toxic Metals and Other Trace Elements by Consumption of Female Fish Gonads and Testicles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052762 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the risk to consumers associated with the intake of toxic metals and other trace elements in diets that include the female gonads, testicles, and muscles of four popular freshwater fish species in Poland—common bream ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the risk to consumers associated with the intake of toxic metals and other trace elements in diets that include the female gonads, testicles, and muscles of four popular freshwater fish species in Poland—common bream (Abramis brama L.), European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), common roach (Rutilus rutilus L.), and northern pike (Esox Lucius L.). The following methods were used to determine the elements: GF-AAS (Pb, Cd); CV-AAS (Hg); ICP-AES (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Li, Cr, Al). The concentration of toxic elements (Hg, Cd, Pb) in the female gonads and testicles ranged from 0.004 ± 0.006 mg/kg (Cd) to 0.028 ± 0.018 mg/kg (Pb). Of the other elements, the lowest content was noted for Cr (0.122 ± 0.182 mg/kg) and the highest for Al (46.98 ± 31.89 mg/kg). The study confirmed that female gonads and testicles are a valuable source of essential trace elements (Zn, Fe). Considering the content of toxic elements, the raw material of female gonads and testicles posed no health risks (THQ < 1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Empirical Evidence of Arsenite Oxidase Gene as an Indicator Accounting for Arsenic Phytoextraction by Pteris vittata
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031796 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
Arsenic (As) is a toxic semi-metallic element that is ubiquitous in the environment and poses serious human health risks. Phytoextraction by Pteris vittata is considered a low-cost and environmentally friendly approach to treat As-contaminated soil. P. vittata mainly absorbs arsenate thus the bioavailability [...] Read more.
Arsenic (As) is a toxic semi-metallic element that is ubiquitous in the environment and poses serious human health risks. Phytoextraction by Pteris vittata is considered a low-cost and environmentally friendly approach to treat As-contaminated soil. P. vittata mainly absorbs arsenate thus the bioavailability of As to P. vittata depends on the chemical form of As. Microbial redox of As contributes to the biogeochemical cycling of As, and rhizobacterium-assisted phytoextraction by P. vittata was proposed. In this study, this microbe-assisted phytoextraction was applied to two fields, and the effectiveness of phytoextraction was evaluated. The results revealed that P. vittata was able to grow in temperate and subarctic climate zones. The biomass was influenced by the weather, and the As concentration in plants was dependent on the As content in the soil. The ratio of arsenite oxidase genes (aioA-like genes) to 16S rRNA genes was employed to evaluate the effect of As phytoextraction, and the results exhibited that the ratio was related to the As concentration in P. vittata. Our results showed that arsenite oxidation in the rhizosphere might not be achieved by single-strain inoculation, while this study provided empirical evidence that the rhizospheric aioA-like genes could be an indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of As phytoextraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Heavy Metal Contamination in Oryza sativa L. at the Eastern Region of Malaysia and Its Risk Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020739 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Paddy plants tend to accumulate heavy metals from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and this poses adverse risks to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination in paddy plants in Kelantan, Malaysia, and its health risk assessment. [...] Read more.
Paddy plants tend to accumulate heavy metals from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and this poses adverse risks to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination in paddy plants in Kelantan, Malaysia, and its health risk assessment. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals was studied by means of enrichment (EF) and translocation factors (TF). The health risk assessment was performed based on USEPA guidelines. The EF for heavy metals in the studied areas was in the descending order of Cu > As > Cr > Cd > Pb. Meanwhile, Cr and Pb exhibited higher TF values from stem to grain compared with the others. The combined hazard index (HI) resulting from five heavy metals exceeded the acceptable limit (HI >1). The lifetime cancer risk, in both adult and children, was beyond the acceptable limit (10−4) and mainly resulted from exposure. The total cancer risk (CRt) due to simultaneous exposures to multiple carcinogenic elements also exceeded 10−4. In conclusion, intake of heavy metal through rice ingestion is likely to cause both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks. Further research is required to investigate the extent of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and, moreover, to establish human exposure as a result of rice consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Seasonal and Spatial Variation in Dissolved Heavy Metals in Liaodong Bay, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010608 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Spatial–seasonal variations in dissolved heavy metals in surface seawater were analyzed based on surveys at 87 sampling sites and water samples from six rivers across Liaodong Bay. The concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) had ranges of 0.20–40.00 [...] Read more.
Spatial–seasonal variations in dissolved heavy metals in surface seawater were analyzed based on surveys at 87 sampling sites and water samples from six rivers across Liaodong Bay. The concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) had ranges of 0.20–40.00 (5.45 ± 5.67), 0.51–33.64 (4.68 ± 3.93), 0.03–13.47 (2.22 ± 2.01), and 0.50–80.09 μg/L (14.22 ± 16.32), respectively, throughout the four seasons of 2020. The trace metal concentration showed a spatial gradient of high to low from river to estuary and from inshore to offshore areas. A combination of pollution levels and marine sensitivity was employed to assess the pollution degree of the heavy metals. As a whole, the single pollution factors of trace metals in Liaodong Bay were ranged in the order Pb > Zn > Cu > Cd. The total pollution degree was relatively high in autumn and summer due to increased riverine inputs after the rainy season, while relatively low in spring and winter. These findings provide baseline data for future targeting policies to protect marine environments in Liaodong Bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
The Mediation Effects of Aluminum in Plasma and Dipeptidyl Peptidase Like Protein 6 (DPP6) Polymorphism on Renal Function via Genome-Wide Typing Association
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910484 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is related to renal failure and the failure of other systems. Although there were some genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Australia and England, there were no GWAS about Han Chinese to our knowledge. Thus, this research focused on using whole [...] Read more.
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is related to renal failure and the failure of other systems. Although there were some genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Australia and England, there were no GWAS about Han Chinese to our knowledge. Thus, this research focused on using whole genomic genotypes from the Taiwan Biobank for exploring the association between Al concentrations in plasma and renal function. Participants, who underwent questionnaire interviews, biomarkers, and genotyping, were from the Taiwan Biobank database. Then, we measured their plasma Al concentrations with ICP-MS in the laboratory at Kaohsiung Medical University. We used this data to link genome-wide association (GWA) tests while looking for candidate genes and associated plasma Al concentration to renal function. Furthermore, we examined the path relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Al concentrations, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) through the mediation analysis with 3000 replication bootstraps. Following the principles of GWAS, we focused on three SNPs within the dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6) gene in chromosome 7, rs10224371, rs2316242, and rs10268004, respectively. The results of the mediation analysis showed that all of the selected SNPs have indirectly affected eGFR through a mediation of Al concentrations. Our analysis revealed the association between DPP6 SNPs, plasma Al concentrations, and eGFR. However, further longitudinal studies and research on mechanism are in need. Our analysis was still be the first study that explored the association between the DPP6, SNPs, and Al in plasma affecting eGFR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
The Association of Renal Function and Plasma Metals Modified by EGFR and TNF-α Gene Polymorphisms in Metal Industrial Workers and General Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 8965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18178965 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Exposure to metals may be associated with renal function impairment, but the effect modified by genetic polymorphisms was not considered in most studies. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α) play important roles in renal hemodynamics, and they have been [...] Read more.
Exposure to metals may be associated with renal function impairment, but the effect modified by genetic polymorphisms was not considered in most studies. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α) play important roles in renal hemodynamics, and they have been reported to be associated with some renal diseases. The aim of our research is to explore whether genetic variations in EGFR and TNF-α have influence on renal function under exposure to various metals. This cross-sectional study consisted of 376 metal industrial workers, 396 participants of Taiwan Biobank, and 231 volunteers of health examinations. We identified 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the EGFR gene and 6 SNPs on the TNF-α gene, and we also measured their plasma concentration of cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, arsenic, and lead. Multiple regression analysis was applied to investigate the association between various SNPs, metals, and renal function. Our results revealed some protective and susceptible genotypes under occupational or environmental exposure to metals. The individuals carrying EGFR rs2280653 GG might have declined renal function under excessive exposure to selenium, and those with EGFR rs3823585 CC, rs12671550 CC, and rs4947986 GG genotypes might be susceptible to lead nephrotoxicity. We suggest the high-risk population to prevent renal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Interaction of Smoking and Lead Exposure among Carriers of Genetic Variants Associated with a Higher Level of Oxidative Stress Indicators
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168325 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Smoking and lead (Pb) exposure increased oxidative stress in human body, and people with some gene variants may be susceptible to Pb and smoking via oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate oxidative stress by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [...] Read more.
Smoking and lead (Pb) exposure increased oxidative stress in human body, and people with some gene variants may be susceptible to Pb and smoking via oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate oxidative stress by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the relationship of lipid peroxidation markers in Pb workers with different gene polymorphisms (rs4673 and rs1050450) in both smokers and nonsmokers. Blood samples were collected from 267 Pb workers who received their annual health examination in the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) rs1050450 and cytochrome B-245 Alpha Chain (CYBA) rs4673 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were analyzed by specific primer-probes using Real-Time PCR methods. The interaction between blood Pb and smoking increased serum levels of TBARS and the ratio of oxidative low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL/LDL). Analysis of workers with rs1050450 SNPs showed higher blood Pb levels in the workers with CC genotype than those with CT genotype. Smokers had significantly higher blood Pb, alanine transaminase (ALT), TBARS, and OxLDL levels than nonsmokers. TBARS increased 0.009 nmol/mL when blood Pb increased one µg/dL in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The ratio of OxLDL/LDL increased 0.223 when blood Pb increased one µg/dL in smokers compared to nonsmokers. TBARS levels and the ratio of OxLDL/LDL were positively correlated and interacted between blood Pb and smoking after the adjustment of confounders, suggesting that smoking cessation is an important issue in the Pb-exposed working environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
A Health Risk Assessment of Lead and Other Metals in Pharmaceutical Herbal Products and Dietary Supplements Containing Ginkgo biloba in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168285 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The use of the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba has increased worldwide. However, G. biloba is capable of assimilating both essential and toxic metals, and the ingestion of contaminated products can cause damage to health. The aim of this study was to investigate the [...] Read more.
The use of the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba has increased worldwide. However, G. biloba is capable of assimilating both essential and toxic metals, and the ingestion of contaminated products can cause damage to health. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd) in 26 items containing Ginkgo biloba (pharmaceutical herbal products, dietary supplements, and traditional herbal remedies) purchased in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Metal analysis was performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. All of the products were contaminated with Pb, 54% of them with As, and 81% with Cd. The lowest values of Pb, As, and Cd were detected in pharmaceutical herbal products > dietary supplements > traditional herbal remedies. The daily intake dose (DID) of pharmaceutical herbal products was within the established limits for the five metals. Dietary supplements and traditional herbal remedies exceeded the DID limits for Pb. The hazard quotients estimation and non-carcinogenic cumulative hazard estimation index for Mn, As, and Cd indicated no human health risk. Our results suggest that products containing G. biloba for sale in Mexico are not a health risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Effect of Copper Sulphate and Cadmium Chloride on Non-Human Primate Sperm Function In Vitro
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126200 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
In order to address the large percentage of unexplained male infertility in humans, more detailed investigations using sperm functional tests are needed to identify possible causes for compromised fertility. Since many environmental and lifestyle factors might be contributing to infertility, future studies aiming [...] Read more.
In order to address the large percentage of unexplained male infertility in humans, more detailed investigations using sperm functional tests are needed to identify possible causes for compromised fertility. Since many environmental and lifestyle factors might be contributing to infertility, future studies aiming to elucidate the effect of such factors on male fertility will need the use of appropriate research models. The current study aimed to assess the effects of two heavy metals, namely copper sulphate, and cadmium chloride, on non-human primate (NHP) sperm function in order to establish the possibility of using these primate species as models for reproductive studies. Our combined results indicated that the functionality of NHP spermatozoa is inhibited by the two heavy metals investigated. After in vitro exposure, detrimental effects, and significant lowered values (p < 0.05) were obtained for sperm motility, viability and vitality, acrosome intactness, and hyperactivation. These metals, at the tested higher concentrations, therefore, have the ability to impair sperm quality thereby affecting sperm fertilizing capability in both humans and NHPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Effects of Growth Stage and Cd Chemical Form on Cd and Zn Accumulation in Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084214 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Cadmium is a hazardous heavy metal and causes contamination globally. Phytoremediation can potentially become a low-cost and eco-friendly technique for mitigating Cd contamination. Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera hyper-accumulates Cd and Zn, and may be used to remediate Cd-contaminated sites. However, few studies have [...] Read more.
Cadmium is a hazardous heavy metal and causes contamination globally. Phytoremediation can potentially become a low-cost and eco-friendly technique for mitigating Cd contamination. Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera hyper-accumulates Cd and Zn, and may be used to remediate Cd-contaminated sites. However, few studies have focused on Cd accumulation by A. halleri ssp. gemmifera. Herein, we demonstrate the accumulation of Cd by A. halleri ssp. gemmifera. The biomass, Cd, and Zn concentration of the plant increased in the 103 days of experimentation. Cd concentration of soil significantly decreased compared to its initial concentration (≈10%). The material balance of Cd uptake by plant and Cd decrement from soil ranged from 63.3% to 83.7% in each growth stage. Analysis indicated that the water-eluted and exchangeable forms of Cd were stable during the experiment. However, Cd concentration extracted with 0.1 M HCl decreased (25% of initial), and this fraction was not bioavailable. The study exhibits the mass balance of Cd between plant uptake and decrement from the soil and the changes in the chemical form of Cd during stages of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Zinc, and Iron Concentration Patterns in Three Marine Fish Species from Two Different Mining Sites inside the Gulf of California, Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020844 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
In the Gulf of California; mineral deposits have contributed to high metal contents in coastal environments. This study examined cadmium; lead; copper; zinc; and iron contents in three fish species; Kyphosus vaigiensis (herbivore), Stegastes rectifraenum (omnivore), and Balistes polylepis (carnivore) at two mining [...] Read more.
In the Gulf of California; mineral deposits have contributed to high metal contents in coastal environments. This study examined cadmium; lead; copper; zinc; and iron contents in three fish species; Kyphosus vaigiensis (herbivore), Stegastes rectifraenum (omnivore), and Balistes polylepis (carnivore) at two mining sites. Metal concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes were estimated using mass spectrophotometry. Also, we assessed the risk to human health from the consumption of these three species based on permissible limits; although only two of them (Kyphosus and Balistes) are consumed as food. Metal concentrations differed among fish species; except for iron. The highest concentrations of metals were not always recorded in the species at the highest trophic level; i.e., Balistes. The highest concentrations (dry weight) recorded were cadmium (0.21 ± 0.03 µg g−1) and lead (1.67 ± 0.26 µg g−1), in S. rectifraenum; copper (1.60 ± 0.49 µg g−1) and zinc (67.30 ± 8.79 µg g−1), in B. polylepis; and iron (27.06 ± 2.58 µg g−1), in K. vaigiensis. Our findings show that each element accumulates differently in particular marine organisms; depending on the physiology of the species and the biogeochemistry of its habitat; which in turn is affected by the anthropogenic activities in adjacent areas. No risk of heavy metals toxicity is expected from the human consumption of the species and sites studied Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Review

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Review
Toxic Effects of Inhaled Vanadium Attached to Particulate Matter: A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168457 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem recognized by the World Health Organization as a major health risk factor that affects low-, middle- and high-income countries. Suspended particulate matter is among the most dangerous pollutants, since it contains toxicologically relevant agents, such as metals, [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem recognized by the World Health Organization as a major health risk factor that affects low-, middle- and high-income countries. Suspended particulate matter is among the most dangerous pollutants, since it contains toxicologically relevant agents, such as metals, including vanadium. Vanadium is a transition metal that is emitted into the atmosphere especially by the burning of fossil fuels to which dwellers are exposed. The objective of this literature review is to describe the toxic effects of vanadium and its compounds when they enter the body by inhalation, based especially on the results of a murine experimental model that elucidates the systemic effects that vanadium has on living organisms. To achieve this goal, we reviewed 85 articles on the relevance of vanadium as a component of particulate matter and its toxic effects. Throughout several years of research with the murine experimental model, we have shown that this element generates adverse effects in all the systems evaluated, because it causes immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and reprotoxicity, among other noxious effects. The results with this experimental model add evidence of the effects generated by environmental pollutants and increase the body of evidence that can lead us to make more intelligent environmental decisions for the welfare of all living beings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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