Special Issue "Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Gera E. Nagelhout
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Promotion and Department of Family Medicine, Maastricht University (CAPHRI), Maastricht, The Netherlands
Interests: tobacco control; inequalities; smoking cessation; public policy; health education
Dr. Lucy Popova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Health Promotion and Behavior, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Interests: tobacco control; risk perception; new tobacco products; health education; communication
Dr. Mirte Kuipers
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK
Interests: tobacco control; inequalities; smoking initiation; adolescent health; public policy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, we invite submissions about development and evaluation of new tobacco control interventions.

There are many existing tobacco control interventions that are effective in stimulating smoking cessation or reducing initiation. In order to reduce tobacco consumption, practitioners, schools, municipalities, and governments need to implement these interventions. However, there are possibilities for improving existing interventions. For example, existing campaign-approaches may have been used for years and grown stale. Identifying and evaluating novel approaches is important. Second, existing community-based interventions and policies tend to be less effective among specific priority populations where smoking rates are still high. Tailored or targeted interventions and differential evaluations are needed to contribute to the reduction of smoking inequalities. Third, new eHealth and mHealth interventions need to be developed to keep up with the newest technologies and interests of users. Fourth, there is a lack of evidence on new population-level tobacco control policies. It is important to evaluate their public support among the population and their (potential) effectiveness.

For these reasons, there is a need for the development and evaluation of new tobacco control interventions. This Special Issue aims to cover both individual-level and population-level tobacco control interventions, including interventions that stimulate smoking cessation or reduce smoking uptake. We are happy to invite authors to submit effect evaluations, process evaluations, formative research, and protocols of interventions. Submissions of original articles, critical reviews, and short communications are welcomed.

Manuscripts should be submitted directly to the journal before 1 December 2017 and, upon acceptance, an Article Processing Charge (APC) of 1600 CHF should be paid. However, we can waive the APC for five literature reviews, methodological publications, or other high-impact publications. If you would like to be considered for a waiver, please email the abstract of your manuscript to [email protected] before 1 July 2017. We will let you know whether we can waive the APC (if the publication is accepted) before 15 July 2017.

The below list represents planned manuscripts. Not all full manuscripts of planned papers have been received by the Editorial Office yet. Planned papers are still subject to full peer-review and are not guaranteed publication.

Dr. Gera E. Nagelhout
Dr. Lucy Popova
Dr. Mirte Kuipers
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tobacco Control

  • Intervention Development

  • Smoking Cessation

  • Tobacco prevention

  • Priority Populations

  • eHealth and mHealth

  • Tobacco Control Policy

  • Media Campaigns

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial
Why Are New Tobacco Control Interventions Needed?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040658 - 02 Apr 2018
Abstract
It has been known for years which policies and interventions work to decrease tobacco use in the population[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Lack of Substantial Post-Cessation Weight Increase in Electronic Cigarettes Users
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040581 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Minimization of post-cessation weight gain in quitters is important, but existing approaches (e.g., antismoking medications) shows only limited success. We investigated changes in body weight in smokers who quit or reduced substantially their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs) use. Body [...] Read more.
Minimization of post-cessation weight gain in quitters is important, but existing approaches (e.g., antismoking medications) shows only limited success. We investigated changes in body weight in smokers who quit or reduced substantially their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs) use. Body weight and smoking/vaping history were extracted from medical records of smokers and ex-smokers to match three study groups: (1) regular EC users on at least two consecutive follow-up visits; (2) regular smokers (and not using ECs); (3) subjects who reported sustained smoking abstinence after completing a cessation program. Review of their medical records was conducted at two follow-up visits at 6- (F/U 6m) and 12-months (F/U 12m). A total of 86 EC users, 93 regular smokers, and 44 quitters were studied. In the EC users study group, cigarettes/day use decreased from 21.1 at baseline to 1.8 at F/U 12m (p < 0.0001). Dual usage was reported by approximately 50% of EC users. Both within factor (time, p < 0.0001) and between factor (study groups, p < 0.0001) produced significant effect on weight (% change from baseline), with a significant 4.8% weight gain from baseline in the quitters study group at F/U 12m. For the EC users, weight gain at F/U 12m was only 1.5% of baseline. There was no evidence of post-cessation weight increase in those who reduced substantially cigarette consumption by switching to ECs (i.e., dual users) and only modest post-cessation weight increase was reported in exclusive EC users at F/U 12m. By reducing weight gain and tobacco consumption, EC-based interventions may promote an overall improvement in quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Potential Exposure to Magazine Ads with Voluntary Health Warnings and the Perceived Harmfulness of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040575 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
(1) Background: Several brands of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) carry voluntary health warning messages. This study examined how potential exposure to ENDS magazine ads with these voluntary health warnings were associated with the perceived harmfulness of ENDS. (2) Methods: Risk perception measures [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several brands of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) carry voluntary health warning messages. This study examined how potential exposure to ENDS magazine ads with these voluntary health warnings were associated with the perceived harmfulness of ENDS. (2) Methods: Risk perception measures and self-reported exposure to ENDS ads were obtained from the 2014 Georgia State University (GSU) Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We examined the association between potential exposure to magazine ads with warnings and the perceived harms of ENDS relative to cigarettes, using binary logistic regressions and controlling for general ENDS ad exposure and socio-demographic characteristics. (3) Results: Potential exposure to ENDS magazine ads with warnings was associated with a lower probability of considering ENDS to be more or equally harmful compared to cigarettes, particularly among non-smokers (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.04–0.77). In addition, ad exposure, ENDS use history, race/ethnicity, gender, education, and income were also associated with harm perceptions. (4) Conclusions: This study did not find evidence that magazine ads with warnings increased misperceptions that ENDS are equally or more harmful than cigarettes. With more ENDS advertisements carrying warnings, more research is needed to determine how the warnings in advertisements convey relative harm information to consumers and the public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
Open AccessArticle
Smokers’ Views on Personal Carbon Monoxide Monitors, Associated Apps, and Their Use: An Interview and Think-Aloud Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020288 - 07 Feb 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Smartphone-based personal carbon monoxide (CO) monitors and associated apps, or “CO Smartphone Systems” (CSSs) for short, could enable smokers to independently monitor their smoking and quitting. This study explored views and preferences regarding CSSs and their use among 16 adult, UK-based smokers. First, [...] Read more.
Smartphone-based personal carbon monoxide (CO) monitors and associated apps, or “CO Smartphone Systems” (CSSs) for short, could enable smokers to independently monitor their smoking and quitting. This study explored views and preferences regarding CSSs and their use among 16 adult, UK-based smokers. First, semi-structured interviews explored participants’ expectations of CSSs. Secondly, a think-aloud study identified participants’ reactions to a personal CO monitor and to existing or prototype apps. Framework Analysis identified five themes: (1) General views, needs, and motivation to use CSSs; (2) Views on the personal CO monitor; (3) Practicalities of CSS use; (4) Desired features in associated apps; and (5) Factors affecting preferences for CSSs and their use. Participants had high expectations of CSSs and their potential to increase motivation. Priority app features included: easy CO testing journeys, relevant and motivating feedback, and recording of contextual data. Appearance and usability of the personal CO monitor, and accuracy and relevance of CO testing were considered important for engagement. Participants differed in their motivation to use and preferences for CSSs features and use, which might have non-trivial impact on evaluation efforts. Personal CO monitors and associated apps may be attractive tools for smokers, but making CSSs easy to use and evaluating these among different groups of smokers may be challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Testing Cessation Messages for Cigarette Package Inserts: Findings from a Best/Worst Discrete Choice Experiment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020282 - 06 Feb 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study assessed smokers’ responses to different smoking cessation topics and imagery for cigarette package inserts. Adult smokers from Canada (n = 1000) participated in three discrete choice experiments (DCEs): DCE 1 assessed five cessation benefit topics and five imagery types; DCE [...] Read more.
This study assessed smokers’ responses to different smoking cessation topics and imagery for cigarette package inserts. Adult smokers from Canada (n = 1000) participated in three discrete choice experiments (DCEs): DCE 1 assessed five cessation benefit topics and five imagery types; DCE 2 assessed five messages with tips to improve cessation success and five imagery types; DCE 3 assessed four reproductive health benefits of cessation topics and four imagery types. In each DCE, participants evaluated four or five sets of four inserts, selecting the most and least motivating (DCEs 1 & 3) or helpful (DCE 2) for quitting. Linear mixed models regressed choices on insert and smoker characteristics. For DCE 1, the most motivating messages involved novel disease topics and imagery of younger women. For DCE 2, topics of social support, stress reduction and nicotine replacement therapy were selected as most helpful, with no differences by imagery type. For DCE 3, imagery influenced choices more than topic, with imagery of a family or a mom and baby selected as most motivating. Statistically significant interactions for all three experiments indicated that the influence of imagery type on choices depended on the message topic. Messages to promote smoking cessation through cigarette pack inserts should consider specific combinations of message topic and imagery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of an Outdoor Smoking Ban at Secondary Schools on Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes and Water Pipe Use among Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020205 - 25 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The effectiveness of outdoor smoking bans on smoking behavior among adolescents remains inconclusive. This study evaluates the long-term impact of outdoor school ground smoking bans among adolescents at secondary schools on the use of conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes (with/without nicotine) and water pipes. Outdoor [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of outdoor smoking bans on smoking behavior among adolescents remains inconclusive. This study evaluates the long-term impact of outdoor school ground smoking bans among adolescents at secondary schools on the use of conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes (with/without nicotine) and water pipes. Outdoor smoking bans at 19 Dutch secondary schools were evaluated using a quasi-experimental design. Data on 7733 adolescents were obtained at baseline, and at 6 and 18-month follow-up. The impact of outdoor smoking bans on ‘ever use of conventional cigarettes’, ‘smoking onset’, ‘ever use of e-cigarette with nicotine’, ‘e-cigarette without nicotine’, and ‘water pipe’ was measured. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used. At schools with a ban, implementation fidelity was checked. At schools where a ban was implemented, at 18-month follow-up more adolescents had started smoking compared to the control condition. No effect of implementation of the ban was found for smoking prevalence, e-cigarettes with/without nicotine, and water pipe use. Implementation fidelity was sufficient. No long-term effects were found of an outdoor smoking ban, except for smoking onset. The ban might cause a reversal effect when schools encounter difficulties with its enforcement or when adolescents still see others smoking. Additional research is required with a longer follow-up than 18 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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Open AccessArticle
Attitudes towards Potential New Tobacco Control Regulations among U.S. Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010072 - 05 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Favorable attitudes towards tobacco control policies can facilitate their implementation and success. We examined attitudes toward four potential U.S. Federal tobacco regulations (banning menthol from cigarettes, reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes, banning candy and fruit flavored electronic cigarettes, and banning candy and fruit [...] Read more.
Favorable attitudes towards tobacco control policies can facilitate their implementation and success. We examined attitudes toward four potential U.S. Federal tobacco regulations (banning menthol from cigarettes, reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes, banning candy and fruit flavored electronic cigarettes, and banning candy and fruit flavored little cigars and cigarillos) and associations with individual and state variables. A nationally representative phone survey of 4337 adults assessed attitudes toward potential policies. Weighted logistic regression was used to assess relationships between attitudes and demographic factors, smoking behavior, beliefs about the government (knowledge, trust, and credibility), exposure to tobacco control campaigns, and state variables from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Most respondents supported three out of four policies. Respondents that were female, non-white, Latino, living below the poverty line, had less than high school education, were of older age, did not smoke, had higher trust in government, and were exposed to national tobacco control campaigns had higher odds of expressing favorable attitudes toward potential new tobacco regulations than did their counterparts. No state-level effects were found. While differences in attitudes were observed by individual demographic characteristics, behaviors, and beliefs, a majority of participants supported most of the potential new tobacco regulations surveyed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
Open AccessArticle
Assessing and Validating an Educational Resource Package for Health Professionals to Improve Smoking Cessation Care in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Pregnant Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101148 - 29 Sep 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Australian Aboriginal pregnant women have a high smoking prevalence (45%). Health professionals lack adequate educational resources to manage smoking. Resources need to be tailored to ensure saliency, cultural-sensitivity and account for diversity of Indigenous populations. As part of an intervention to improve health [...] Read more.
Australian Aboriginal pregnant women have a high smoking prevalence (45%). Health professionals lack adequate educational resources to manage smoking. Resources need to be tailored to ensure saliency, cultural-sensitivity and account for diversity of Indigenous populations. As part of an intervention to improve health professionals’ smoking cessation care in Aboriginal pregnant women, a resource package was developed collaboratively with two Aboriginal Medical Services. The purpose of this study was to assess and validate this resource package. A multi-centred community-based participatory 4-step process (with three Aboriginal Medical Services from three Australian states), included: (1) Scientific review by an expert panel (2) ‘Suitability of Materials’ scoring by two Aboriginal Health Workers (3) Readability scores (4) Focus groups with health professionals. Content was analysed using six pre-determined themes (attraction, comprehension, self-efficacy, graphics and layout, cultural acceptability, and persuasion), with further inductive analysis for emerging themes. Suitability of Material scoring was adequate or superior. Average readability was grade 6.4 for patient resources (range 5.1–7.2), and 9.8 for health provider resources (range 8.5–10.6). Emergent themes included ‘Getting the message right’; ‘Engaging with family’; ‘Needing visual aids’; and ‘Requiring practicality under a tight timeframe’. Results were presented back to a Stakeholder and Consumer Aboriginal Advisory Panel and resources were adjusted accordingly. This process ensured materials used for the intervention were culturally responsive, evidence-based and useful. This novel formative evaluation protocol could be adapted for other Indigenous and culturally diverse interventions. The added value of this time-consuming and costly process is yet to be justified in research, and might impact the potential adaption by other projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
Open AccessArticle
Smoke-Free Recovery from Trauma Surgery: A Pilot Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program for Orthopaedic Trauma Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080847 - 28 Jul 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Smoking increases the risk of complications associated with orthopaedic trauma surgery, however delivery of care is low. Online interventions may provide needed smoking cessation care and promote abstinence. This study aims to examine the engagement, acceptability, and retention of an online smoking cessation [...] Read more.
Smoking increases the risk of complications associated with orthopaedic trauma surgery, however delivery of care is low. Online interventions may provide needed smoking cessation care and promote abstinence. This study aims to examine the engagement, acceptability, and retention of an online smoking cessation program (Smoke-Free Recovery; SFR) among a sample of orthopaedic trauma patients, as well as themes around the smoking cessation process. A pilot study of SFR with 31 orthopaedic trauma patients admitted to a public hospital in New South Wales, Australia took place. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted following hospital discharge. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used. Engagement was high with 28 participants accessing SFR during admission. Twenty individuals completed follow-up phone calls. Program acceptability was rated favourably. After discharge, changes in smoking habits were noted, with program retention low. Themes on program use included: lack of time or need for additional support; computer illiteracy or technology issues; feeling unready or too stressed to quit; or feeling they had reached the boundary of what could be learnt from the program. This study highlights the difficulties faced by patients following hospital admission, the lack of follow-up support received, and the need for consumer testing prior to roll out. Continuing to develop interventions to promote hospital-initiated cessation attempts that continue post-discharge should be a priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Establishing Smoke-Free Homes in the Indigenous Populations of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States: A Systematic Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111382 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
A smoke-free home can have multiple benefits by reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), supporting quit attempts among active smokers, and discouraging adolescents from taking up smoking. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on the establishment of smoke-free homes [...] Read more.
A smoke-free home can have multiple benefits by reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), supporting quit attempts among active smokers, and discouraging adolescents from taking up smoking. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on the establishment of smoke-free homes in Indigenous populations and identify the supporting influences and barriers, using the Social Cognitive Theory lens. A search of the Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and PyscINFO databases and manual searches of relevant peer-reviewed literature was completed, focusing on Indigenous populations in developed economies of North America and Oceania. Of 2567 articles identified, 15 studies were included. Ten studies included Indigenous participants only, and of these just three focused entirely on SHS in the home. Knowledge of the harms associated with SHS was the most common theme represented in all the studies. This knowledge fueled parents’ motivation to protect their children from SHS by establishing smoke-free homes. Individuals who approached implementation with confidence, coupled with clear communication about smoke-free home rules were more successful. Barriers included challenges for families with multiple smokers living in the same dwelling. There is limited research regarding managing smoking behaviors in the home among Indigenous populations, even though this approach is a successful catalyst for smoking prevention and cessation. Research to understand the influences that support the establishment of smoke-free homes is required for better-informed intervention studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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Other

Open AccessProtocol
Adapting, Pilot Testing and Evaluating the Kick.it App to Support Smoking Cessation for Smokers with Severe Mental Illness: A Study Protocol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020254 - 03 Feb 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
(1) Background: While the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population has declined, it remains exceptionally high for smokers with severe mental illness (SMI), despite significant public health measures. This project aims to adapt, pilot test and evaluate a novel e-health smoking [...] Read more.
(1) Background: While the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population has declined, it remains exceptionally high for smokers with severe mental illness (SMI), despite significant public health measures. This project aims to adapt, pilot test and evaluate a novel e-health smoking cessation intervention to assist relapse prevention and encourage sustained smoking cessation for young adults (aged 18–29 years) with SMI. (2) Methods: Using co-design principles, the researchers will adapt the Kick.it smartphone App in collaboration with a small sample of current and ex-smokers with SMI. In-depth interviews with smokers with SMI who have attempted to quit in the past 12 months and ex-smokers (i.e., those having not smoked in the past seven days) will explore their perceptions of smoking cessation support options that have been of value to them. Focus group participants will then give their feedback on the existing Kick.it App and any adaptations needed. The adapted App will then be pilot-tested with a small sample of young adult smokers with SMI interested in attempting to cut down or quit smoking, measuring utility, feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes in supporting their quit efforts. (3) Conclusions: This pilot work will inform a larger definitive trial. Dependent on recruitment success, the project may extend to also include smokers with SMI who are aged 30 years or more. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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Open AccessProtocol
Evaluation and Implementation of a Proactive Telephone Smoking Cessation Counseling for Parents: A Study Protocol of an Effectiveness Implementation Hybrid Design
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010097 - 09 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Detrimental health consequences of smoking for both parents and children stress the importance for parents to quit. A Dutch efficacy trial supported the efficacy of proactive telephone counseling on parents. Still, how this program would function in “real world” conditions and how parents [...] Read more.
Detrimental health consequences of smoking for both parents and children stress the importance for parents to quit. A Dutch efficacy trial supported the efficacy of proactive telephone counseling on parents. Still, how this program would function in “real world” conditions and how parents could be optimally reached is unclear. Therefore, this study will use an innovative method to examine the recruitment success of two implementation approaches (i.e., via a healthcare approach and a mass media approach) to test the (cost)effectiveness of the program. A two-arm randomized controlled trial and an implementation study (i.e., process evaluation) are conducted. Parents (N = 158) will be randomly assigned to the intervention (i.e., telephone counseling) or control conditions (i.e., self-help brochure). Primary outcome measure is 7-day point prevalence abstinence at three months post-intervention. Qualitative and quantitative research methods are used for the process evaluation. We expect that parents in the intervention condition have higher cessation rates than parents in the control condition. We also expect that the recruitment of parents via (youth) health care services is a more promising implementation approach compared to mass media. Results will have implications for the effectiveness of a proactive telephone counseling and provide directions for its successful implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Tobacco Harm Reduction with Vaporised Nicotine (THRiVe): The Study Protocol of an Uncontrolled Feasibility Study of Novel Nicotine Replacement Products among People Living with HIV Who Smoke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070799 - 18 Jul 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), who have high rates of tobacco smoking. Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) are growing in popularity as a quit aid and harm reduction tool. However, little is known [...] Read more.
Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), who have high rates of tobacco smoking. Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) are growing in popularity as a quit aid and harm reduction tool. However, little is known about their acceptability and use among PLHIV. Using a pragmatic, uncontrolled, mixed methods design this exploratory clinical trial aims to examine the feasibility of conducting a powered randomised clinical trial of VNPs as a smoking cessation and harm reduction intervention among vulnerable populations, such as PLHIV who smoke tobacco. Convenience sampling and snowball methods will be used to recruit participants (N = 30) who will receive two VNPs and up to 12 weeks’ supply of nicotine e-liquid to use in a quit attempt. Surveys will be completed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, 12 (end of treatment) and 24 (end of the study) and qualitative interviews at weeks 0 and 12. As far as we are aware, this feasibility study is the first to trial VNPs among PLHIV for smoking cessation. If feasible and effective, this intervention could offer a new approach to reducing the high burden of tobacco-related disease among PLHIV and other vulnerable populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
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