Special Issue "Sleep and Wellbeing"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Chin Moi Chow
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Interests: lifestyle factors and sleep health; sleep-wake rhythms; sleep apnea; insomnia; depression; sleeping environment; electroencephalography; actigraphy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on Sleep and Wellbeing in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The venue is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Sleep is medicine, as exercise is medicine. Sleep, a behavioural performance enhancer, surpasses the ergogenic effects of caffeine and other enhancing agents. However, sleep can be delicate and easily disrupted by the same factors that promote it, including psychological, physical, medical, and lifestyle (diets, exercise, environment, relationships, stressors, and sleep hygiene) factors. Sleep deprivation can have negative implications for mental, metabolic, physical, and immune functions.

This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to sleep health and wellbeing. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Assoc. Prof. Chin Moi Chow
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lifestyle factors
  • Stress
  • Dietary factors
  • Sleeping environment
  • Thermal comfort
  • Exercise/Physical activity
  • Neuroendocrine
  • Sleep loss
  • Sleep homeostasis
  • Circadian
  • Light sensitivity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
How Do Nurses Cope with Shift Work? A Qualitative Analysis of Open-Ended Responses from a Survey of Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203821 - 10 Oct 2019
Abstract
Nurses are frequently required to engage in shift work given the 24/7 nature of modern healthcare provision. Despite the health and wellbeing costs associated with shift work, little is known about the types of coping strategies employed by nurses. It may be important [...] Read more.
Nurses are frequently required to engage in shift work given the 24/7 nature of modern healthcare provision. Despite the health and wellbeing costs associated with shift work, little is known about the types of coping strategies employed by nurses. It may be important for nurses to adopt strategies to cope with shift work in order to prevent burnout, maintain wellbeing, and ensure high quality care to patients. This paper explores common strategies employed by nurses to cope with shift work. A workforce survey was completed by 449 shift working nurses that were recruited from a major metropolitan health service in Melbourne, Australia. Responses to open-ended questions about coping strategies were analysed using the framework approach to thematic analysis. Four interconnected main themes emerged from the data: (i) health practices, (ii) social and leisure, (iii) cognitive coping strategies, and (iv) work-related coping strategies. Although a range of coping strategies were identified, sleep difficulties often hindered the effective use of coping strategies, potentially exacerbating poor health outcomes. Findings suggest that in addition to improving nurses’ abilities to employ effective coping strategies on an individual level, workplaces also play an important role in facilitating nurses’ wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of an m-Health Intervention Targeting Physical Activity, Diet, and Sleep Quality in Shift-Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203810 - 10 Oct 2019
Abstract
Poor health behaviors are prevalent in shift-workers, but few multiple health-behavior interventions consider their unique needs. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an existing app-based intervention to improve physical activity, diet, and sleep quality in a shift-worker population, [...] Read more.
Poor health behaviors are prevalent in shift-workers, but few multiple health-behavior interventions consider their unique needs. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an existing app-based intervention to improve physical activity, diet, and sleep quality in a shift-worker population, (2) estimate intervention effect in a four-week pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) (ACTRN12618001785291). Shift-workers (18–65 years old) were randomized to intervention (n = 20) or wait-list (n = 20) groups. Outcomes included recruitment, engagement, attrition, usefulness ratings, System Usability Scale (SUS), qualitative interviews, and estimation of treatment effect (minutes of physical activity, diet quality, and sleep quality) using mixed model analysis. Recruitment took one week. App-use at week four was 55% (11/20), 85% (34/40) completed the four-week follow-up questionnaire, and 20% (4/20) of the intervention group completed the qualitative interview. The intervention was rated as slightly to moderately useful by 76.9% (10/13) of participants on a five-point scale. The SUS score was 62.7 (12.7) out of 100. Diet quality improved for the intervention (4.5 points; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1, 8.9; p = 0.047) vs. the wait-list group, but not physical activity or sleep quality. Qualitative interviews found that a more tailored intervention, more accessible information, and interactive features were desired. The intervention was feasible in terms of recruitment, but modifications to increase engagement are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Depression and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Sleep-Deprived College Freshmen in Northern Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173148 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
Background. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and other determinants (sleep-deprived behaviors such as hours spent sleeping, watching television, and on the computer) and their association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among college freshmen. Methods. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from [...] Read more.
Background. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and other determinants (sleep-deprived behaviors such as hours spent sleeping, watching television, and on the computer) and their association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among college freshmen. Methods. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from two colleges in northern Taiwan from July to September 2014. A total of 2643 students (38.7% male; ages ranged 18–23 years; mean age of 18.8 ± 1.2 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on lifestyle behaviors (including personal habits, sleep duration and quality, and hours spent watching television and on the computer); perception of one’s health, a validated depression scale (Brief Symptom Rating Scale, BSRS-5); insomnia symptoms (the Chinese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale, CAIS); and EDS rated with the Chinese Epworth sleepiness scale (CESS). The data were analyzed using the chi-squared test, t-test, multivariate logistic regression, and multiple linear regression. Results. The prevalence of EDS among college students was approximately 27.1% (717/2643). The risk of EDS was elevated with increasing severity of depression: odds ratio (OR) = 2.8/3.71/5.01 for female, and OR = 3.29/5.07/5.07 for mild/moderate/severe depression for male, respectively (p < 0.05; marginally higher in male severe depression, p = 0.08). If depression score increased by 1 point, CESS score increased by 0.35 point; if time spent on the computer during non-holidays increased by 1 h, CESS score increased by 0.1 point; and for those whose sleep duration increased by 1 h during non-holidays, CESS score decreased by 0.1 point. Conclusions. EDS significantly predicted depression among college freshmen. Using a computer for a long time and less sleep duration during non-holidays contributed to EDS of college freshmen. Youths who experience EDS are recommended to seek assessment for depression symptoms and sleep-deprived behaviors, thus allowing physicians to offer appropriate screening and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of an Online CBT-I Intervention and a Face-to-Face Treatment for Shift Work Sleep Disorder: A Comparison of Sleep Diary Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173081 - 24 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In western societies, about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and [...] Read more.
In western societies, about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and treatment options that are specifically tailored to shift-workers’ needs are rare. We devised a 4-week online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) intervention (n = 21) and compared sleep outcomes to a face-to-face outpatient treatment for shift-workers (n = 12) using a sleep diary and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In the online sample, measures also included the World Health Organization wellbeing questionnaire (WHO-5) and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). In the outpatient sample, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were administered. Results showed significant improvements in sleep efficiency by 7.2% in the online sample and 7.7% in the outpatient sample. However, no significant difference was found in the rate of improvement in sleep efficiency across four weeks of treatment between the samples. In the online sample, the wellbeing (WHO-5) and insomnia symptoms (ISI) scores were significantly improved following the CBT-I intervention (p < 0.004 and p < 0.002 respectively). In the outpatient sample, symptoms of depression (BDI-II and MADRS scores) and insomnia symptoms (PSQI scores) improved significantly following the CBT-I intervention. In summary, CBT-I significantly improved sleep efficiency in both the online and outpatient samples, in addition to wellbeing, symptoms of insomnia, and depression. The findings of this study demonstrate online CBT-I as a feasible approach for treating insomnia in shift-workers. Future randomized controlled trials are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
An Exploratory Study on the Effects of Forest Therapy on Sleep Quality in Patients with Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142449 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The improvement of sleep quality in patients with cancer has a positive therapeutic effect on them. However, there are no specific treatment guidelines for treating sleep disturbance in cancer patients. We investigated the effect of forest therapy on the quality of sleep in [...] Read more.
The improvement of sleep quality in patients with cancer has a positive therapeutic effect on them. However, there are no specific treatment guidelines for treating sleep disturbance in cancer patients. We investigated the effect of forest therapy on the quality of sleep in patients with cancer. This study was conducted on nine patients (one male, eight female; mean age, 53.6 ± 5.8 years) with gastrointestinal tract cancer. All patients participated in forest therapy for six days. They underwent polysomnography (PSG) and answered questionnaires on sleep apnea (STOP BANG), subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), sleepiness (Stanford and Epworth Sleepiness Scales), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) to evaluate the quality of sleep before and after forest therapy. Sleep efficiency from the PSG results was shown to have increased from 79.6 ± 6.8% before forest therapy to 88.8 ± 4.9% after forest therapy (p = 0.027) in those patients, and total sleep time was also increased, from 367.2 ± 33.4 min to 398 ± 33.8 min (p = 0.020). There was no significant difference in the STOP BANG score, PSQI scores, daytime sleepiness based on the results of the Stanford and Epworth Sleepiness Scales, and depression and anxiety scores. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that forest therapy may be helpful in improving sleep quality in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Patterns of Diet, Physical Activity, Sitting and Sleep Are Associated with Socio-Demographic, Behavioural, and Health-Risk Indicators in Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132375 - 04 Jul 2019
Abstract
Our understanding of how multiple health-behaviours co-occur is in its infancy. This study aimed to: (1) identify patterns of physical activity, diet, sitting, and sleep; and (2) examine the association between sociodemographic and health-risk indicators. Pooled data from annual cross-sectional telephone surveys of [...] Read more.
Our understanding of how multiple health-behaviours co-occur is in its infancy. This study aimed to: (1) identify patterns of physical activity, diet, sitting, and sleep; and (2) examine the association between sociodemographic and health-risk indicators. Pooled data from annual cross-sectional telephone surveys of Australian adults (2015–2017, n = 3374, 51.4% women) were used. Participants self-reported physical activity, diet, sitting-time, sleep/rest insufficiency, sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol use, height and weight to calculate body mass index (BMI), and mental distress frequency. Latent class analysis identified health-behaviour classes. Latent class regression determined the associations between health-behaviour patterns, sociodemographic, and health-risk indicators. Three latent classes were identified. Relative to a ‘moderate lifestyle’ pattern (men: 43.2%, women: 38.1%), a ‘poor lifestyle’ pattern (men: 19.9%, women: 30.5%) was associated with increased odds of a younger age, smoking, BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2, frequent mental distress (men and women), non-partnered status (men only), a lower Socioeconomic Index for Areas centile, primary/secondary education only, and BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 (women only). An ‘active poor sleeper’ pattern (men: 37.0%, women: 31.4%) was associated with increased odds of a younger age (men and women), working and frequent mental distress (women only), relative to a ‘moderate lifestyle’ pattern. Better understanding of how health-behaviour patterns influence future health status is needed. Targeted interventions jointly addressing these behaviours are a public health priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Short Sleep Duration and Insomnia Symptoms were Associated with Lower Happiness Levels in Chinese Adults in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122079 - 12 Jun 2019
Abstract
Study objective: To examine the association of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with happiness. Methods: A random sample of 1691 Chinese adult (mean age 54 ± 20.1, male 51%) were interviewed in a population-based telephone survey. Happiness was measured by the [...] Read more.
Study objective: To examine the association of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with happiness. Methods: A random sample of 1691 Chinese adult (mean age 54 ± 20.1, male 51%) were interviewed in a population-based telephone survey. Happiness was measured by the subjective happiness scale (SHS) and the one-item global happiness index (GHI). Information on sleep included mean past seven-day sleep duration (<6 h, ≥6 to <8 h and ≥8 h) and insomnia symptoms: Difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), and early morning awakening (EMA). Adjusted beta-coefficient (β) of SHS and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of GHI in relation to sleep problems were calculated. Interaction effects by age (18–65 vs. ≥65) and by sex were assessed. Results: Compared to ≥8 h of sleep, having <6 h of sleep had lower SHS (adjusted β −0.32, 95% CI −0.46 to −0.17) and GHI (aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.78). The associations were stronger in younger adults and in women (p < 0.05). DIS, DMS, and EMA were associated with lower SHS (adjusted β ranged from −0.20 to −0.06) and GHI (aOR ranged from 0.57 to 0.89). Dose-response association between the number of insomnia symptoms and lower SHS was observed (p < 0.001). These associations were generally stronger in older adults and among women. Conclusions: Lower levels of happiness were observed, particularly in younger adults and females with short sleep duration and older adults and females with insomnia symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and understand the mechanisms between sleep and happiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Wellbeing)
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