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Special Issue "Advances in Kinesiology and Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 15111

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jung-Min Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Education, College of Physical Education, Kyung Hee University (Global Campus), 1732 Deokyoungdaero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17014, Korea
Interests: physical activity; accelerometer; wearable tracker; health promotion
Dr. Hyun Chul Jung
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sport Coaching, College of Physical Education, Kyung Hee University (Global Campus), 1732 Deokyoungdaero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17014, Korea
Interests: athletic performance; physical fitness; body composition; growth and development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Numerous studies have been performed to accumulate abundant knowledge on human movement from the point of view of human behaviour related to health and quality of life. The most valuable findings, derived from conducting professional research and practice in the field of kinesiology, are that regular physical activity provides countless health benefits and the field of kinesiology has direct applications in improving health and quality of life. Kinesiologists are continuously obtaining new knowledge through advanced technologies and research; thus, knowledge of how to improve health is also continuously being updated, contributing toward optimizing the health and quality of life of the population, and significantly reducing health care costs.

This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research will discuss advanced research methods (original research, reviews, and meta-analysis) applied to various aspects of the kinesiology field, which include exercise physiology, biomechanics, exercise psychology, physical activity, exercise training, sports performance, health promotion, sport sociology, and strength and conditioning research. Advanced investigations to promote health and physical activity are encouraged and submissions from all disciplines will be considered. In addition, papers addressing these topics to a high academic standard, aligned with a practical focus on improving health and physical activity, are highly encouraged. All manuscripts will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field. 

Dr. Jung-Min Lee
Dr. Hyun Chul Jung
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • exercise physiology
  • biomechanics
  • physical fitness
  • strength and conditioning
  • athletic training
  • health promotion
  • sports sociology

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effects of Acute Yohimbine Hydrochloride Supplementation on Repeated Supramaximal Sprint Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031316 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 772
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single acute dose of yohimbine hydrochloride on repeated anaerobic sprint ability. Physically active females (n = 18) completed two separate repeated supramaximal sprint trials each with a different single-dose treatment: [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single acute dose of yohimbine hydrochloride on repeated anaerobic sprint ability. Physically active females (n = 18) completed two separate repeated supramaximal sprint trials each with a different single-dose treatment: placebo (PL; gluten-free corn starch) or yohimbine hydrochloride (YHM; 2.5 mg). For each trial, participants consumed their respective treatment 20 min before exercise. Following a warm-up, participants completed 3 × 15 s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnTs) separated by 2 min of active recovery. A capillary blood sample was obtained pre- and immediately post-exercise to measure blood concentrations of lactate (LA), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE). Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured following each WAnT. Findings showed that mean power (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.024), total work (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.061), and HR (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.046), were significantly higher with YHM supplementation versus PL. Fatigue index (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.054) and post-exercise LA (p < 0.001; d = 1.26) were significantly lower with YHM compared to PL. YHM resulted in significantly higher EPI concentrations versus PL (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.225) pre- and post-exercise while NE only increased as a function of time (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.227) and was unaffected by treatment. While RPE increased after each WAnT, no differences between treatments were observed (p = 0.539; η2 < 0.001). Together, these results suggest that acute YHM ingestion imparts ergogenic benefits which may be mediated by lower blood LA and fatigue concomitantly occurring with blood EPI increases. Thus, YHM may improve sprint performance although more mechanistic study is warranted to accentuate underlying processes mediating performance enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
Postural Control Differences between Patients with Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction and Healthy People during Gait
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031301 - 24 Jan 2022
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Background: Patients with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) may exhibit postural instability during walking likely due to a loss of medial longitudinal arch, abnormal foot alignment, and pain. While many studies have investigated gait alterations in PTTD, there is no understanding of dynamic [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) may exhibit postural instability during walking likely due to a loss of medial longitudinal arch, abnormal foot alignment, and pain. While many studies have investigated gait alterations in PTTD, there is no understanding of dynamic postural control mechanisms in this population during gait, which will help guide rehabilitation and gait training programs for patients with PTTD. The purpose of the study was to assess dynamic postural control mechanisms in patients with stage II PTTD as compared to age and gender matched healthy controls. Methods: Eleven patients with stage II PTTD (4 males and 7 females; age 59 ± 1 years; height 1.66 ± 0.12 m; mass 84.2 ± 16.0 kg) and ten gender and age matched controls were recruited in this study. Participants were asked to walk along a 10 m walkway. Ten Vicon cameras and four AMTI force platforms were used to collect kinematic and center of pressure (COP) data while participants performed gait. To test differences between PTTD vs. control groups, independent t-tests (set at α < 0.05) were performed. Results: Patients with PTTD had significantly higher double stance ratio (+23%) and anterior-posterior (AP) time to contact (TTC) percentage (+16%) as compared to healthy control. However, PTTD had lower AP COP excursion (−19%), AP COP velocity (−30%), and medial-lateral (ML) COP velocity (−40%) as compared to healthy controls. Mean ML COP trace values for PTTD were significantly decreased (−23%) as compared to controls, indicating COP trace for PTTD tends to be closer to the medial boundary than controls during single-support phase of walking. Conclusion: PTTD patients showed more conservative and cautious postural strategies which may help maintain balance and reduce the need for postural adjustment during PTTD gait. They also showed more medially shifted COP patterns than healthy controls during single-support phase of walking. Dynamic postural control outcomes could be used to develop effective gait training programs aimed at alleviating a medial shift of COP (everted foot) for individuals with PTTD in order to improve their functionality and gait efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
Association with Temperature Variability and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep in a Free-Living Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413077 - 11 Dec 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The present study examines the temperature variability in physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep in a free-living population. A representative sample of 1235 adults (ages 21–70) from Iowa, U.S.A., wore a SenseWear Mini Armband (SWA) for a randomly assigned day. Koppen’s [...] Read more.
The present study examines the temperature variability in physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep in a free-living population. A representative sample of 1235 adults (ages 21–70) from Iowa, U.S.A., wore a SenseWear Mini Armband (SWA) for a randomly assigned day. Koppen’s weather climate classification was used to precisely classify the temperature: cold (−13 to 32 °F), cool (32 to 50 °F), mild (50 to 64 °F), warm (64 to 73 °F), and hot (73 to 95 °F). The main effect of three-way ANOVA (age × gender × temperature) had differences for SB and sleep, with older adults having higher levels than younger adults (p < 0.05). However, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) did not vary systematically by age or gender, and contrary to expectations, the main effect of the weather was not significant for MVPA (p > 0.05). Participants spent more time participating in PA at cold than at hot temperatures. The results clarify the impact of temperature on shaping PA and SB patterns in adults. The variable impacts and differential patterns by age suggest that weather should be considered when interpreting differences in PA patterns in research or surveillance applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
Differential Cutaneous Thermal Sensitivity in Humans: Method of Limit vs. Method of Sensation Magnitude
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312576 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Introduction: The method of limits (MLI) and method of level (MLE) are commonly employed for the quantitative assessment of cutaneous thermal sensitivity. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort are closely related and thermal sensations evoked from the peripheral thermoreceptors play an important role in [...] Read more.
Introduction: The method of limits (MLI) and method of level (MLE) are commonly employed for the quantitative assessment of cutaneous thermal sensitivity. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort are closely related and thermal sensations evoked from the peripheral thermoreceptors play an important role in thermoregulatory response to maintain normal body temperature. The purpose of this study was to compare the regional distribution of cutaneous warm and cold sensitivity between MLI and the method of sensation magnitude (MSM). Method: Twenty healthy men completed MLI and MSM to compare the regional distribution of cutaneous warm and cold sensitivity in the thermal neutral condition. The subjects rested on a bed in a supine position for 20 min. Next, the cutaneous thermal sensitivity of ten body sites was assessed by the means of MLI and MSM for both warmth and cold stimuli. Results: The absolute mean heat flux in MLI and thermal sensation magnitude in MSM showed significantly greater sensitivity to cold than to warm stimulation (p < 0.01), together with a similar pattern of regional differences across ten body sites. Both sensory modalities indicated acceptable reliability (SRD%: 6.29–8.66) and excellent reproducibility (ICC: 0.826–0.906; p < 0.01). However, the Z-sore distribution in MSM was much narrower than in MLI, which may limit the test sensitivity for the detection of sensory disorders and/or comparison between individuals. Conclusion: The present results showed that both MLI and MSM are effective means for evaluating regional cutaneous thermal sensitivity to innocuous warm and cold stimulations to a strong degree of reliability and reproducibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
The Efficacy of a Calamansi-Containing Energy Drink on Running Performance and Recovery in NCAA Division I Middle-Distance Runners: A Preliminary Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111023 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 749
Abstract
This study examined the effects of a non-caffeinated energy drink (ED) that contained calamansi juice, glucose, and taurine on 3-km running performance and recovery. Eleven NCAA Division I middle-distance runners (20.8 ± 1.5 years old) were randomly assigned to consume either the ED [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of a non-caffeinated energy drink (ED) that contained calamansi juice, glucose, and taurine on 3-km running performance and recovery. Eleven NCAA Division I middle-distance runners (20.8 ± 1.5 years old) were randomly assigned to consume either the ED or a placebo drink 60 min before 3-km running on a 400-m official track. Performance time and speed were recorded every 500-m interval. Recovery blood lactate concentration (BLC), systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline, 60-min after ingesting the drinks, and post-running measurements were performed at 1-min, 5-min, and 10-min. Repeated analysis of variance and paired t-test were applied to examine the effects of time, trials, and their interaction on performance and recovery. Statistical significance was set a priori at p < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in performance time and speed between trials (p < 0.05). No interaction effect was found on performance time, speed, recovery BLC, DBP, and HR (p < 0.05). However, an interaction effect for trial by time was observed on SBP (p = 0.01). Recovery SBP continues to decrease from 5-min to 10-min in the ED trial (∆ = −13.9 mmHg) and slightly increased in the placebo trial (∆ = 1.1 mmHg). This study suggests that acute consumption of a calamansi-containing ED can positively impact the SBP recovery but not running performance. Further studies are needed to examine the acute and chronic effects of this ED on exercise performance and recovery among different populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
When Do Individuals Get More Injured? Relationship between Physical Activity Intensity, Duration, Participation Mode, and Injury
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010855 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The present study examines the association between physical activity (PA) participation modes (i.e., family, friends, club members, and alone), PA volumes (i.e., intensity and duration), gender, and injury. A total of 9000 Koreans aged 10–89 years participated in the Korean Survey of Citizens’ [...] Read more.
The present study examines the association between physical activity (PA) participation modes (i.e., family, friends, club members, and alone), PA volumes (i.e., intensity and duration), gender, and injury. A total of 9000 Koreans aged 10–89 years participated in the Korean Survey of Citizens’ Sports Participation project. However, participants who did not respond to a question regarding PA participation modes (n = 2429) and those under 18 years old (n = 489) were excluded from this study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the groups’ characteristics and the association between PA participation modes and injury was demonstrated by conducting multinomial logistic regression analysis. The risk of injury was significantly higher in the friend and club member groups than in the alone group. In addition, PA intensity and gender were critical risk factors of injury, while PA duration showed no significant results. The results indicated a strong association between PA participation modes, PA intensity, gender, and injury, and an interesting finding is that more injuries derived from a higher intensity of PA, not from a longer duration of PA. Therefore, this present study directly documented that considerable attention should be placed on the factors that affect injuries, such as gender and PA intensity, to prevent unpredictable injury and encourage potential participants to exercise with diverse participation modes and appropriate intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
A Case Study of Active Aging through Lifelong Learning: Psychosocial Interpretation of Older Adult Participation in Evening Schools in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179232 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Lifelong learning is a key element of the conceptual framework of active aging. To understand how older adults experience active aging through participation in lifelong learning, the authors conducted a qualitative case study. The research participants were older adult learners attending evening schools [...] Read more.
Lifelong learning is a key element of the conceptual framework of active aging. To understand how older adults experience active aging through participation in lifelong learning, the authors conducted a qualitative case study. The research participants were older adult learners attending evening schools aiming to pass the equivalency examination. Data were collected primarily using semi-structured interviews with five older adult learners, and additional data were collected from relevant documents. Data analysis and thematic discussion provided insights into how older adults experience active aging by participating in lifelong learning. Data analysis identified themes of overcoming limited education, taking the equivalency examination, and evolving goals. Thematic discussion revealed that older adults began learning to meet deficiency needs; however, they developed their goals after attending evening schools and passing the equivalency examination. In addition, lifelong learning is an indispensable element of active aging not only because learning is good for older adults’ wellbeing, as reported in the literature, but also because older adults become more active in the systemic change of their environment and in the setting goals for their lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
Training Benefits and Injury Risks of Standing Yoga Applied in Musculoskeletal Problems: Lower Limb Biomechanical Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168402 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Standing yoga poses strengthen a person’s legs and helps to achieve the goal of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, but inadequate exercise planning can cause injuries. This study investigated changes in the electromyogram and joint moments of force (JMOFs) of lower extremities during common standing yoga [...] Read more.
Standing yoga poses strengthen a person’s legs and helps to achieve the goal of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, but inadequate exercise planning can cause injuries. This study investigated changes in the electromyogram and joint moments of force (JMOFs) of lower extremities during common standing yoga poses in order to explore the feasibility and possible injury risk in dealing with musculoskeletal problems. Eleven yoga instructors were recruited to execute five yoga poses (Chair, Tree, Warrior 1, 2, and 3). The results revealed significant differences in hip, knee, and ankle JMOFs and varying degrees of muscle activation among the poses. Among these poses, rectus femoris muscle activation during the Chair pose was the highest, Warrior 2 produced the highest muscle activation in the vastus lateralis of the front limb, while Warrior 1 had the highest muscle activation in the vastus medialis of the back limb. Therefore, all three poses can possibly be suggested as a therapeutic intervention for quadriceps strengthening. Warrior 1 was possibly suggested as a therapeutic intervention in order to reduce excessive lateral overload of the patella, but the possible adverse effects of Warrior 2 with the highest knee adductor JMOF in the back limb could raise joint reaction forces across the medial condyles. In single-leg balance postures, Warrior 3 had unique training effects on the hamstring, and is therefore suggested as a part of hamstring rehabilitation exercises. The Tree pose induced low lower-extremity JMOFs and a low level of thigh muscle activations when it was performed by senior instructors with excellent balance control; however, for yoga beginners with insufficient stability, it will be a useful training mode for strengthening the muscles that help to keep one upright. This study quantified the physical demands of yoga poses using biomechanical data and elucidated the structures and principles underlying each yoga movement. This is crucial for yoga practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
What Does the Future Hold? Health-Related Quality of Life 3–12 Years Following a Youth Sport-Related Knee Injury
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136877 - 26 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Knee trauma can lead to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess HRQoL 3–12 years following youth sport-related knee injury considering HRQoL and osteoarthritis determinants. Generic (EQ-5D-5L index, EQ-VAS) and condition-specific (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score quality [...] Read more.
Knee trauma can lead to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess HRQoL 3–12 years following youth sport-related knee injury considering HRQoL and osteoarthritis determinants. Generic (EQ-5D-5L index, EQ-VAS) and condition-specific (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score quality of life subscale, KOOS QOL) HRQoL were assessed in 124 individuals 3–12 years following youth sport-related knee injury and 129 uninjured controls of similar age, sex, and sport. Linear regression examined differences in HRQoL outcomes by injury group. Multivariable linear regression explored the influence of sex, time-since-injury, injury type, body mass index, knee muscle strength, Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) score, and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) moderate-to-strenuous physical activity. Participant median (range) age was 23 years (14–29) and 55% were female. Injury history was associated with poorer KOOS QOL (−8.41; 95%CI −10.76, −6.06) but not EQ-5D-5L (−0.0074; −0.0238, 0.0089) or EQ-VAS (−3.82; −8.77, 1.14). Injury history (−5.14; −6.90, −3.38), worse ICOAP score (−0.40; −0.45, −0.36), and anterior cruciate ligament tear (−1.41; −2.77, −0.06) contributed to poorer KOOS QOL. Worse ICOAP score contributed to poorer EQ-5D-5L (−0.0024; −0.0034, −0.0015) and higher GLTEQ moderate-to-strenuous physical activity to better EQ-VAS (0.10; 0.03, 0.17). Knee trauma is associated with poorer condition-specific but not generic HRQoL 3–12 years post-injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
Article
Effects of 16 Weeks of Resistance Training on Muscle Quality and Muscle Growth Factors in Older Adult Women with Sarcopenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136762 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
This study examined the effects of resistance training on muscle quality, muscle growth factors, and functional fitness in older adult women with sarcopenia. Twenty-two older adult women aged over 65 with sarcopenia were randomly assigned to either resistance training (RT, n = 12) [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of resistance training on muscle quality, muscle growth factors, and functional fitness in older adult women with sarcopenia. Twenty-two older adult women aged over 65 with sarcopenia were randomly assigned to either resistance training (RT, n = 12) or non-exercise control group (CG, n = 10). The body weight-based and elastic band RT were performed three times a week, 60 min per session, for 16 weeks. Body composition and thigh muscle quality were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT), respectively. The muscle growth factors, including growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), activin A, and follistatin, were analyzed via blood samples. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and effect size (i.e., cohen’s d, partial eta square), and the significance level was set at 0.05. The RT group improved their functional fitness, grip strength, gait speed, and isometric muscle strength (p < 0.01, d > 0.99; large), while these variables did not change in the CG. An increase in intramuscular fat was only observed in the CG (p < 0.01, 1.06; large). Muscle growth factors such as follistatin were significantly increased in the RT (p < 0.05, 0.81; large), but other variables did not change following resistance training. Sixteen weeks of resistance training improved functional fitness and prevented age-related increases in intramuscular fat in the thigh area. However, there were only some changes in muscle growth factors, such as follistatin, suggesting that the effectiveness of resistance training on muscle growth factors is limited. Body weight-based and elastic band resistance training is an alternative training method for sarcopenia to minimize the age-related adverse effects on muscle function and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
What Happened Pre- and during COVID-19 in South Korea? Comparing Physical Activity, Sleep Time, and Body Weight Status
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115863 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the changes in physical activity (PA), sleep time (ST), and body weight (BW) Pre- and during COVID-19 in South Korea, and specifically, PA data were obtained during COVID-19 at three-time points based on the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the changes in physical activity (PA), sleep time (ST), and body weight (BW) Pre- and during COVID-19 in South Korea, and specifically, PA data were obtained during COVID-19 at three-time points based on the multilevel social distancing policies. All data were surveyed by questionnaires online and offline, and participants were required to fill in the monthly average of daily step counts were recorded an application on participants’ smartphone devices from Pre-COVID-19 (2019 year) and during COVID-19 (2020 year). Participants were 834 adults (males: 54.4%, female: 45.6%) and all statistical analyses were summarized by SPSS 25.0 program. The monthly average of daily step counts was 6747.09 during Pre-COVID-19, but the PA during COVID-19 was 5812.11 daily step counts per month. Also, there were significant pairwise differences between average PA Pre-COVID-19 and each level of social distancing (p < 0.001). After COVID-19, the participants who slept less than 7 h decreased by 3.6%, while those who slept more than 9 h increased by that much. As a result of BW, 269 participants responded their BW changed during COVID-19, and 199 of them reported they gained BW during COVID-19 (74.0%). Although self-reported questionnaires may have led to an under-or over-estimation of ST and BW, the present study found that the environment in which the COVID-19 is prevalent had adverse relationships on PA, ST, and BW. Therefore, it is important to identify strategies to motivate individuals for remaining physically active and getting adequate sleep while maintaining social distancing due to the presence of the COVID-19 global pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
Effects of Focal Knee Joint Cooling on Static and Dynamic Strength of the Quadriceps: Innovative Approach to Muscle Conditioning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094890 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests an innovative approach to muscle conditioning: focal knee joint cooling (FKJC) appears to improve quadriceps function, including static (isometric) strength. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of FKJC on dynamic (concentric and eccentric) strength. Thus, the purpose of [...] Read more.
Recent evidence suggests an innovative approach to muscle conditioning: focal knee joint cooling (FKJC) appears to improve quadriceps function, including static (isometric) strength. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of FKJC on dynamic (concentric and eccentric) strength. Thus, the purpose of the study was to examine dynamic quadriceps strength following FKJC as well as static strength. Twenty-one college-aged participants volunteered. They randomly underwent 20 min of FKJC and control condition at least 72 h apart. FKJC involves two ice bags, placed on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the knee, whereas the control condition received a plastic ice bag filled with candy corn. We assessed isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) quadriceps strength at two different velocities (60°/s and 180°/s). Participants performed three maximal voluntary contractions for each mode of muscle contraction, before and after each treatment (immediately, 20, and 40 min after). The outcome variable was maximum knee extension peak torque. FKJC did not change peak torque during any mode of muscle contraction (p > 0.05). The current findings suggest that 20 min of FKJC does not change static (isometric) or dynamic (isokinetic) strength of the quadriceps. FKJC was neither beneficial nor harmful to static or dynamic muscular strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Article
Carrying Asymmetric Loads While Walking on a Treadmill Interferes with Lower Limb Coordination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094549 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different load carriage modes on coordinative patterns in the lower extremities during walking. Twenty-five university students walked on a treadmill at their preferred pace under three different load conditions: symmetric load (5% [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different load carriage modes on coordinative patterns in the lower extremities during walking. Twenty-five university students walked on a treadmill at their preferred pace under three different load conditions: symmetric load (5% of body mass in messenger bags on each shoulder hanging vertically and against the hips), asymmetric load 1 (10% of body mass in a messenger bag on one shoulder hanging vertically against the ipsilateral hip), and asymmetric load 2 (10% of body mass in a messenger bag on one shoulder with the bag draped across the trunk to the contralateral hip). Altered thigh-shank and shank-foot couplings were found for the loaded side during the stance of gait when comparing the asymmetric 1 and 2 to the symmetric load. In addition, thigh-thigh coupling was changed during gait when comparing the asymmetric load 2 and symmetric load. However, we did not find any significant differences in intralimb and interlimb couplings between the two different asymmetric load conditions. The results suggest potential benefits when carrying symmetrical loads in order to decrease abnormal limb coordination in daily activities. Thus, it may be advisable to distribute load more symmetrically to avoid abnormal gait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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Review

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Review
Intergenerational Taekwondo Program: A Narrative Review and Practical Intervention Proposal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5247; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095247 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Taekwondo is a modernized martial art that includes various combinations of hand and kicking techniques and core values of Taekwondo philosophy such as courtesy, mutual respect, and self-control. Physical inactivity is highly prevalent among older adults and is a major contributor to health-related [...] Read more.
Taekwondo is a modernized martial art that includes various combinations of hand and kicking techniques and core values of Taekwondo philosophy such as courtesy, mutual respect, and self-control. Physical inactivity is highly prevalent among older adults and is a major contributor to health-related problems. Intergenerational physical activity programs are used as an effective tool to make a positive connection between generations and provide additional health benefits for both generations. This review study aimed to examine the theories of intergenerational physical activity programs and propose the Intergenerational Taekwondo Program (ITP). Various theories such as the transtheoretical model, contact theory, social capital theory, situated learning theory, human development theory, personality theory, and whole-person wellness model have been adopted in intergenerational physical activity programs. Our review suggests that to develop the Intergenerational Taekwondo Program, instructors should (1) establishing common goals, (2) understand differences in physical and mental abilities, and (3) offer incentives to encourage participants in physical activity programs. The proposed ITP program has the potential to not just provide unique inherent values and improving physical functions, but also to form generational connections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)

Other

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Brief Report
Estimated Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Maximal Oxygen Uptake Based on Multistage 10-m Shuttle Run Test in Healthy Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168510 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
We aimed to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) based on a multistage 10 m shuttle run test (SRT) in healthy adults. For ANN-based VO2max estimation, 118 healthy Korean adults (59 [...] Read more.
We aimed to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) based on a multistage 10 m shuttle run test (SRT) in healthy adults. For ANN-based VO2max estimation, 118 healthy Korean adults (59 men and 59 women) in their twenties and fifties (38.3 ± 11.8 years, men aged 37.8 ± 12.1 years, and women aged 38.8 ± 11.6 years) participated in this study; data included age, sex, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP)), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body composition (weight, height, body mass index (BMI), percent skeletal muscle, and percent body), 10 m SRT parameters (number of round trips and final speed), and VO2max by graded exercise test (GXT) using a treadmill. The best estimation results (R2 = 0.8206, adjusted R2 = 0.7010, root mean square error; RMSE = 3.1301) were obtained in case 3 (using age, sex, height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, SBP, DBP, number of round trips in 10 m SRT, and final speed in 10 m SRT), while the worst results (R2 = 0.7765, adjusted R2 = 0.7206, RMSE = 3.494) were obtained for case 1 (using age, sex, height, weight, BMI, number of round trips in 10 m SRT, and final speed in 10 m SRT). The estimation results of case 2 (using age, sex, height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, number of round trips in 10 m SRT, and final speed in 10 m SRT) were lower (R2 = 0.7909, adjusted R2 = 0.7072, RMSE = 3.3798) than those of case 3 and higher than those of case 1. However, all cases showed high performance (R2) in the estimation results. This brief report developed an ANN-based estimation model to predict the VO2max of healthy adults, and the model’s performance was confirmed to be excellent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Kinesiology and Health)
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