Topical Collection "Healthcare in Dentistry"

A topical collection in Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This collection belongs to the section "Nursing".

Editor

Prof. Dr. Massimo Corsalini
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
Interests: dental materials; fixed and removable prosthesis; craniomandibular disorders; oral rehabilitation in post-surgical defects; nanomaterials in dental prostheses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The wellbeing of the oral cavity has been of great interest in recent years. For this Special Issue, we wish to consider manuscripts that can lead to clarification of the aspects related to healthcare and oral pathologies, like simple and complex oral rehabilitation of edentulism both in normal patients and those affected by serious systemic diseases, the treatment and prevention of oral diseases, malocclusions, tempomandibular joint diseases. The use of nanotechnologies in the rehabilitation of patients with surgical outcomes, and the prevention and treatment of pathologies that can affect the presence of dental elements in the oral cavity. The published papers will contribute to achieving oral wellbeing and a better quality of life, suggesting possible suitable prevention and therapy protocols for the multiple pathologies of the oral cavity.

Prof. Dr. Massimo Corsalini
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • oral health management
  • oral rehabilitation
  • oral pathologies treatment
  • well-being of the oral cavity
  • oral health prevention
  • oral health management
  • oral education

Published Papers (21 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021, 2020

Article
Effectiveness of Three Agents in Pulpotomy Treatment of Permanent Molars with Incomplete Root Development: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Healthcare 2022, 10(3), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10030431 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 436
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare, radiographically and clinically, the impacts of calcium-silicate based-cement (CSBC), nano-hydroxyapatite and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as pulpotomy agents in permanent immature molars with incomplete root development. Sixty-three participants (63 permanent immature molars) were included [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare, radiographically and clinically, the impacts of calcium-silicate based-cement (CSBC), nano-hydroxyapatite and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as pulpotomy agents in permanent immature molars with incomplete root development. Sixty-three participants (63 permanent immature molars) were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into three equal groups. Fast setting MTA (MM-MTA), nano-hydroxyapatite and platelet-rich fibrin were used as pulpotomy agents. The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically after 6 and 12 months by two blinded examiners. Apical closure and pulp canal obliteration percentages were recorded. The in vitro reaction of the tested materials after a 7-day immersion period of the different materials in phosphate-buffered solution was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to associate the in vitro mineralization with in vivo pulp canal obliteration percentages. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and ANOVA tests (α = 0.05). No significant difference was found between the three tested groups in terms of clinical and radiographic success (p > 0.05). All cases demonstrated evidence of root growth, including complete apical closure or continued apical closure. At 12 months, complete apical closure was found among the MM-MTA group (50%), nano-hydroxyapatite group (55%) and platelet-rich fibrin group (60%) (p > 0.05). After 12 months, pulp canal obliteration was more observed in the MM-MTA and nano-hydroxyapatite groups than in the PRF group (p < 0.05). MM-MTA (auto-mixed), NHA (hand-mixed) and PRF (autologous) could be used as pulpotomy agents since they exhibit comparable high clinical and radiographic success rates. However, the fact that the groups managed with MM-MTA and NHA have a higher tendency to canal obliteration might indicate that PRF should be considered the first choice material as pulpotomy agent, as it would make retreatment considerably easier. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022, 2020

Article
Does Customized Handle Toothbrush Influence Dental Plaque Removal in Children with Down Syndrome? A Randomized Controlled Trial
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091130 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of customized handle toothbrush in dental plaque removal in children with Down syndrome in comparison to children with no special needs. A randomized clinical trial was performed on 48 children aged 6–9 years old. Participants [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of customized handle toothbrush in dental plaque removal in children with Down syndrome in comparison to children with no special needs. A randomized clinical trial was performed on 48 children aged 6–9 years old. Participants were divided into two groups (n = 24, children with no special needs or with Down syndrome). Each group was divided into two subgroups (customized and conventional toothbrush). Plaque accumulation was evaluated using Turesky modification of the Quigley–Hein plaque index (TMQHPI) at four times (pre-brushing (T0), post-brushing at baseline (T1), 1 week (T2) and 3 weeks (T3)), and the modified gingival index (MGI) was used to evaluate the gingivitis at three times (T0, T2 and T3). Data were statistically analyzed. Plaque accumulation and gingivitis decreased significantly for all groups between T0 and T3 (p < 0.05). Both customized groups demonstrated significant lower plaque accumulation compared to conventional groups (p < 0.05) at T1, T2 and T3 and significant lower gingivitis at T3. Customizing the toothbrush handle improved child’s ability for plaque control, especially in children with Down syndrome. Full article
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Article
Patterns of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Utilization by Various Dental Specialties: A 4-Year Retrospective Analysis from a Dental and Maxillofacial Specialty Center
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9081042 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
The study aimed to analyze the uses of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis and treatment in various dental specialties. This 4-year cross-sectional study analyzed the records of 1409 individuals who underwent a CBCT at the Oral and Maxillofacial Center at Sheba [...] Read more.
The study aimed to analyze the uses of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis and treatment in various dental specialties. This 4-year cross-sectional study analyzed the records of 1409 individuals who underwent a CBCT at the Oral and Maxillofacial Center at Sheba Medical Center, Israel. The average age of the patients was 27.9 ± 11.5 (range: 9–86 years). Patients were referred for CBCT by the following departments: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (1063; 75.5%), Endodontics (182; 12.9%), Periodontology (122; 8.6%) and Orthodontics (42; 3.0%). Most CBCT radiographs evaluated the maxilla (774; 55.0%), followed by the mandible (481; 34.1%) and both (154; 10.9%). The target anatomical structures included: bone (694; 49.3%), teeth (307; 21.7%), and both jaws (408; 29.0%). The main indications for CBCT use were: assessment of anatomical structures and implant sites (787; 55.9%), determine root canals morphology (182; 12.9%), visualization of impacted teeth, tooth alignment, and localization (177; 12.6%), suspected cysts or tumors (148; 10.5%), evaluation of Temporomandibular joint disorders (106; 7.5%) and other reasons (9; 0.6%). In 279 (19.8%) of cases, the diagnosis changed following CBCT, mainly in Orthodontics tooth analysis (28 (66.7%); p < 0.001). Practitioners and health authorities should be aware of this baseline information regarding CBCT use in the diagnosis and assessment of various oral and maxillofacial pathologies, anomalies and tooth position relative to anatomic structures. Continuing research and publications of CBCT utilization and guidelines are recommended. Full article
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Article
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis for the Comparison of Polish and Foreign Dentistry Students’ Concerns during the Covid-19 Pandemic
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060765 - 19 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Introduction: At the beginning of 2020, the worldwide infection of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) changed many aspects of human lives. The controlled lockdown was not only an obligatory lifestyle change to communities across the globe, but it was also an emotional struggle. The aim of [...] Read more.
Introduction: At the beginning of 2020, the worldwide infection of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) changed many aspects of human lives. The controlled lockdown was not only an obligatory lifestyle change to communities across the globe, but it was also an emotional struggle. The aim of the presented study was to identify and compare the main difficulties that final-year students (both Polish and foreigners) of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze Medical University of Silesia had to cope with during the first wave of the pandemic. Application of the biographical method in the form of essays written was done. Authors discussed the following issues: possible losses and benefits subjectively felt by individuals due to the COVID-19 pandemic, adaptation to online type of studying, students’ opinions regarding change of habits, and psychological impact of the lockdown. Students’ responses varied between groups in the aspect of what they considered as the biggest struggle of the pandemic time period. Adaptation to e-learning was easier for the group of foreign students. The Polish group considered it as a serious stress factor. Foreigners were much more worried about not being able to help their families in comparison to Polish students. Polish students’ fear was related to the fear of virus transmission to their older relatives. Both groups were aware of how serious the situation was and of the possible impact of lack of practical classes on their future internships. As benefits of that situation, both groups listed development of new hobbies and increased sport activities. The Polish group emphasized improvement of interpersonal bonds during the lockdown in their families. The main conclusion proved an awareness of the seriousness of the situation in which students of medical, especially dental faculties found themselves. Concerns were related to the form of further studies and the possibility of taking up employment after graduation. Polish students declared more intense concerns about e-learning and remote study than foreign-language students who were more familiar with this form of communication. A particularly valuable form of teaching for students may be increased numbers of online consultations, since even though they cannot replace practical classes, they may still be helpful in explaining doubts and simply “being there”. Encouraging young people to discover constructive benefits of the pandemic can also be one of a task-oriented strategies of help. Full article
Review
Does the Coronectomy a Feasible and Safe Procedure to Avoid the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injury during Third Molars Extractions? A Systematic Review
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060750 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
This systematic review aimed to review the literature on the coronectomy technique and evaluate the incidence of success and complications as a surgical approach for inferior third molars. Online databases were searched for data on the frequency of inferior alveolar nerve damage, lingual [...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to review the literature on the coronectomy technique and evaluate the incidence of success and complications as a surgical approach for inferior third molars. Online databases were searched for data on the frequency of inferior alveolar nerve damage, lingual nerve damage, root migration, pain, infection, dry socket, and extraction of the remaining root, and data on the necessity of reintervention were also extracted. Randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, and prospective and retrospective studies with or without the control group were intercepted. This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CDR 42020135485). Sixteen papers analyzed 2176 coronectomies in total, and only five of them were judged as appropriate according to methodological quality assessment. The incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injury was documented in 0.59% of the procedures, lingual nerve injury in 0.22%, infection 3.95%, dry socket 1.12%, extraction of the root 5.28%, and reintervention 1.13%. The pain was the most reported, in 22.04% of the population. This study provides an overview of the clinical success and complications of coronectomy, and their prevalence. A coronectomy may be considered a low-risk procedure and an option for treatment to avoid potential damage to nervous structures. However, patients should still undergo a full screening and evaluation of postsurgical procedures. Full article
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Article
Patterns of Periodontal Destruction among Smokeless Tobacco Users in a Central Indian Population
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060744 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Background: Findings of studies testing the association between smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and periodontal health have shown varying results in different populations. Considering the high prevalence of SLT use in India, the present study was conducted to understand the pattern of periodontal destruction [...] Read more.
Background: Findings of studies testing the association between smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and periodontal health have shown varying results in different populations. Considering the high prevalence of SLT use in India, the present study was conducted to understand the pattern of periodontal destruction within different areas of the dentition among SLT users. Methods: Age, gender, oral hygiene habits, the frequency and duration of SLT consumption, the type of SLT product used, and the site of retention of the SLT product in the oral cavity were recorded among 90 SLT users. Probing depth (PD), recession (REC), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) at SLT-associated and non SLT-associated teeth of the mandibular arch were compared based on the site of retention of the SLT product, the type of product used, and the duration of the habit. Results: REC and CAL were significantly higher at the SLT-associated zones compared to non SLT-associated zones and at both interproximal and mid-buccal sites of SLT-associated teeth. Among individuals who had the habit for more than 5 years and also among those who had the habit for 5–10 years, PD, REC, and CAL were significantly higher at SLT-associated teeth than at non SLT-associated teeth. Significantly greater periodontal destruction was observed at SLT-associated teeth among khaini users and gutkha users. Conclusions: Smokeless tobacco consumption resulted in greater destruction of periodontal tissues. The severity of periodontal destruction at SLT-associated sites differed depending on the type of smokeless tobacco used, the site of retention of the SLT, and the duration of the habit. Full article
Review
Protective Measures against COVID-19: Dental Practice and Infection Control
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060679 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
The onset of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged the worldwide healthcare sector, including dentistry. The highly infectious nature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and risk of transmission through aerosol generating procedures has profoundly impacted the delivery of [...] Read more.
The onset of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged the worldwide healthcare sector, including dentistry. The highly infectious nature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and risk of transmission through aerosol generating procedures has profoundly impacted the delivery of dental care services globally. As dental practices with renewed infection control strategies and preventive measures are re-opening in the “new normal” period, it is the responsibility of healthcare professionals to constantly analyze new data and limit the spread of COVID-19 in dental care settings. In the light of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 rapidly emerging in different geographic locations, there is an urgent need to comply more than ever with the rigorous public health measures to mitigate COVID-19 transmission. The aim of this article is to provide dental clinicians with essential information regarding the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus and protective measures against COVID-19 transmission in dental facilities. We complied and provided guidance and standard protocols recommended by credible national and international organizations. This review will serve as an aid to navigating through this unprecedented time with ease. Here we reviewed the available literature recommended for the best current practices that must be taken for a dental office to function safely and successfully. Full article
Article
A Prospective Comparative Study of Mastication Predominance and Masticatory Performance in Kennedy Class I Patients
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060660 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
Mastication predominance in Kennedy class I (KC I) patients has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate mastication predominance and masticatory performance in KC I patients, including the significance of remaining posterior teeth and removable partial-denture (RPD) treatment. KC I patients [...] Read more.
Mastication predominance in Kennedy class I (KC I) patients has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate mastication predominance and masticatory performance in KC I patients, including the significance of remaining posterior teeth and removable partial-denture (RPD) treatment. KC I patients who had differences in the number of posterior teeth between left and right sides (D+) and KC I patients who had no differences (D−) were enrolled. Healthy dentate (HD) subjects were also registered as a positive control. Mastication predominance, defined by mastication predominance index (MPI; range 0–100%) calculated from electromyogram activities during voluntary chewing, and masticatory performance were evaluated at pre- and post-RPD treatment. Pre-MPI in KC I D+ was significantly higher than in HD. RPD treatment could significantly improve MPI and masticatory performance in both KC I groups. However, there were significant differences in masticatory performance between each KC I group and HD, regardless of RPD treatment. It was considered that the mastication predominance in KC I patients was affected by the difference in the number of remaining posterior teeth. RPD treatment could improve mastication predominance and masticatory performance in KC I patients, although the latter was not similar to HD group. Full article
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Article
Plantar Pressure Variations Induced by Experimental Malocclusion—A Pilot Case Series Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050599 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
Background: All body systems involved in ensuring a healthy posture (musculoskeletal system, oculomotor, oto-vestibular and occluso-cranial-mandibular) are essential in maintaining postural balance. Research Question: Does experimental malocclusion in subjects in static position determine variations in plantar pressure? Methods: Overall, 31 subjects were included [...] Read more.
Background: All body systems involved in ensuring a healthy posture (musculoskeletal system, oculomotor, oto-vestibular and occluso-cranial-mandibular) are essential in maintaining postural balance. Research Question: Does experimental malocclusion in subjects in static position determine variations in plantar pressure? Methods: Overall, 31 subjects were included in the study. The plantar pressure was evaluated in five different points: lateral and medial heel, midfoot, 1st and 5th metatarsal area. Using a specially designed splint, an artificial malocclusion was induced on the right hemimandibular arch. The pressure was measured at 0 (T0), 15 (T1) and 30 min (T2) after splint application. Results: The right external plantar sensors recorded statistically significant differences in pressure values after 15 min of splint wear (5th metatarsal area, p = 0.05; midfoot, p = 0.04). Important pressure values were also recorded by the left internal plantar sensors (1st metatarsal, p = 0.01; medial heel, p = 0.006), after 30 min of splint wear. Conclusions: Asymmetrical experimental malocclusion produces early changes in plantar pressure, a proof of compensatory mechanisms induced by secondary postural imbalance. Full article
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Review
The Effect of Menopause Hypoestrogenism on Osteogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Cells (PDLC) and Stem Cells (PDLCs): A Systematic Review
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050572 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
(1) Background: Menopause is a physiological condition typified by drastic hormonal changes, and the effects of this transition have long-term significant clinical implications on the general health, including symptoms or physical changes. In menopausal women, the periodontium can be affected directly or through [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Menopause is a physiological condition typified by drastic hormonal changes, and the effects of this transition have long-term significant clinical implications on the general health, including symptoms or physical changes. In menopausal women, the periodontium can be affected directly or through neural mechanism by oestrogen (E2) deficiency. The majority of the biological effects of E2 are modulated via both oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) and oestrogen receptor- β (ERβ). There is evidence that hypoestrogenism has a substantial impact on the aetiology, manifestation and severity of periodontitis, via the regulation of the expression of osteoprogesterin and RANKL in human periodontal ligament cells through ERβ. However, the mechanistic understanding of oestrogen in periodontal status has been partially clarified. The aim of this paper was to synopsize the recent scientific evidence concerning the link between the menopause and periodontitis, through the investigation of physio-pathological impact of the oestrogen deficiency on osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and PDLSC, as well as the dynamic change of ERα and ERβ. (2) Methods: Search was conducted for significant studies by exploring electronic PubMed and EMBASE databases, and it was independently performed by two researchers. All studies on the impact of oestrogen level on alveolar bone resorption were searched from 2005 to July 2020. Data selection was in concordance with PRISMA guidelines. (3) Results: Eight studies met the criteria and were included in this systematic review. All studies reported that oestrogen deficiency impairs the osteogenic and osteoblastic differentiation of PDL cells and oestrogen affects the bone formation capacity of cells. Seven studies were conducted on animal samples, divided into two groups: the OVX animals and animals who received the sham operation. (4) Conclusions: There is a multitude of data available showing the influence of menopause on periodontal status. However, the evidence of this line to investigation needs more research and could help explain the physiological linkage between menopause state and periodontal disease. Full article
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Case Report
Dental Trauma Management in a Young Teenager through Endodontics and Implantology: A Case Report
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050542 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 944
Abstract
Endodontic treatment is often the first-line procedure to manage the immediate or long-term aftermath of dental trauma, particularly in cases of luxation or avulsion. Failure to manage trauma in the short or medium term leads to significant functional or aesthetic consequences, especially in [...] Read more.
Endodontic treatment is often the first-line procedure to manage the immediate or long-term aftermath of dental trauma, particularly in cases of luxation or avulsion. Failure to manage trauma in the short or medium term leads to significant functional or aesthetic consequences, especially in the adolescence period. Under this specific conditions, endodontic treatment could provide a temporary solution by keeping teeth with poor prognosis on the arch while waiting for better anatomical conditions for implantology. This clinical case aimed to describe the management of a maxilla-facial dental trauma and the following consequences in a 10-year-old male patient. Clinical and radiological examination showed complete extrusive luxation of 11 and 21 and intrusive luxation of 12 and 22. Endodontic treatment of 11 and 21 was performed six months after the trauma. Two years later, the patient was referred to the endodontic department because pink spot lesions appeared on 12 and 22 due to cervical invasive resorptions (class III for 12 and class II for 22). Endodontic treatment of 12 and filling with resin composite of 22 were performed. During the following two years, complication management finally led to placement of four OBI® (Euroteknika, Sallanches, France)-type mini-implants after avulsion of all four maxillary incisors. Palliative endodontic treatment helped maintain the prosthetic space and the volume of supporting tissue needed for future implant placement. The interest of using delaying procedures (palliative endodontic treatments and mini-implants) was to allow the patient to complete growth. Managing early treatment failure of trauma in adolescents has to be pluridisciplinary and should take into account the evaluation of the treatment’s difficulty, the prognosis of the endodontic treatment, the available bone volume and the pubertal growth stage. Full article
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Review
Dental Care Services for Older Adults in Hong Kong—A Shared Funding, Administration, and Provision Mode
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040390 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
Hong Kong has a large and growing population of older adults but their oral health conditions and utilization of dental services are far from optimal. To reduce the financial barriers and to improve the accessibility of dental care services to the older adults, [...] Read more.
Hong Kong has a large and growing population of older adults but their oral health conditions and utilization of dental services are far from optimal. To reduce the financial barriers and to improve the accessibility of dental care services to the older adults, a number of programmes adopting an innovative shared funding, administration, and provision mode have recently been implemented. In this review, an online search on the Hong Kong government websites and the electronic medical literature databases was conducted using keywords such as “dental care,” “dental service,” and “Hong Kong.” Dental care services for older adults in Hong Kong were identified. These programmes include government-funded outreach dental care service provided by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), provision of dentures and related treatments by private and NGO dentists supported by the Community Care Fund, and government healthcare vouchers for private healthcare, including dental, services. This paper presents the details of the operation of these programmes and the initial findings. There is indirect evidence that these public-funded dental care service programmes have gained acceptance and support from the government, the service recipients, and the providers. The experience gained is of great value for the development of appropriate dental care services for the older adults in Hong Kong and worldwide. Full article
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Article
Dentists’ Working Conditions during the First COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: An Online Survey
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030364 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the operating conditions of dentists in Central Europe during the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. A survey including 24 questions was emailed to dentists in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and South Tyrol (Italy). Questions regarding [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the operating conditions of dentists in Central Europe during the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. A survey including 24 questions was emailed to dentists in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and South Tyrol (Italy). Questions regarding dentists’ field of work, working hours, treatments performed, personal protective equipment and protocols, and economic consequences were asked. 1731 participants were included. 30.4% of participants worked mainly in Austria, 60.8% in Germany, 6% in Switzerland and 2.1% in South Tyrol. A country-specific analysis for the situation of South Tyrol was not possible due to the low participation; 53.7% of German, 45.5% of Austrian, and 11.7% of Swiss respondents reduced their working hours; 42.8% of Austrian, 41.5% of Swiss, and 17.3% of German participants closed their offices temporarily; 52.2% of respondents provided emergency service including pain management, restorations/temporaries, and denture repairs. A lack of access to FFP2/FFP3 (filtering facepiece) respirators was indicated by 59.4% Austrian, 38.0% German, and 11.7% Swiss dentists (p < 0.001). FFP2/FFP3 respirators were, when available, most frequently used in Austria (86.9%), followed by Switzerland (61.2%) and Germany (56.7%) (p < 0.001). Financial consequences could not be conclusively quantified by 58.6% of the participants. Most respondents in all partaking countries made use of governmental support. A lack of blueprints/guidelines resulted in heterogeneous working conditions. In consideration of a potentially high risk of infection in the dental setting, non-emergency dental treatments were largely suspended in all participating countries. Full article
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Article
Oral Health Impact Profile in Orthodontic Patients with Ectopic Canine: A Prospective Clinical Intervention of Four Treatment Modalities
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030337 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 533
Abstract
This study evaluated the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Saudi subjects with ectopic canine, severe crowding, and class I normal occlusion. Moreover, we assessed the differences among orthodontic treatment modalities (OTM) in the ectopic canine group. Study design: Retrospective and prospective [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Saudi subjects with ectopic canine, severe crowding, and class I normal occlusion. Moreover, we assessed the differences among orthodontic treatment modalities (OTM) in the ectopic canine group. Study design: Retrospective and prospective evaluation. A total of 96 subjects were assessed for OHRQoL using the Oral Health Impact Profile, English version (OHIP-16). Initial comparison of the baseline data of ectopic canine subjects was made with severe crowding (>8 mm) and class I normal occlusion with the matched number and age of the subjects in later groups. Moreover, a comparison of OHIP-16 scores among four OTM in the ectopic canine group, baseline, 1 day, and 28 days after treatment were performed. OHIP-16 scores of ectopic canine, severe crowding, and class I normal occlusion group were 33.06, 33.09, and 26.43, respectively. Subjects with ectopic canine and severe crowding reported a significantly greater negative impact in terms of embarrassment, avoiding smiling, and lack of self-confidence. OHRQoL had no significant changes among the four OTM groups (p > 0.05). Untreated malocclusion had a significant negative impact on OHRQoL. The negative impact was seen in several domains 1 day after treatment, and gradual improvement was noted 28 days after treatment. Full article
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Article
Medical Diagnoses, Mode of Residence, and Dental Treatment Demand under General Anesthesia in Special Needs Adults in Innsbruck, Austria. A Retrospective Breakdown of Four and a Half Years
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030279 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 497
Abstract
Regarding oral/dental care and attendance, special needs individuals depend on their caregivers’ commitment. The purpose of this retrospective data analysis of adults who received dental general anesthesia (DGA) in Innsbruck, Austria, was a breakdown of demographic parameters (including the mode of accommodation/care), medical [...] Read more.
Regarding oral/dental care and attendance, special needs individuals depend on their caregivers’ commitment. The purpose of this retrospective data analysis of adults who received dental general anesthesia (DGA) in Innsbruck, Austria, was a breakdown of demographic parameters (including the mode of accommodation/care), medical diagnoses (comprising intellectual/physical disablement (IPD) or psychiatric (anxiety) disorders (PDs)), and dental therapy performed under DGA. The sample was composed of 233 consecutive adults who underwent DGA from January 2015 to June 2019. Data were analyzed with descriptive and comparative statistics. In total, 133 (57.1%) subjects were male and 100 (42.9%) female; 176 (75.5%) had IPD and 57 (24.5%) PDs; 168 (72.1%) were living at private and 65 (27.9%) at nursing homes. Median age (IQR) was 35.6 (25.7–47.2) years. In the total sample, 5 (2–9) teeth were restored and 2 (0.5–6.5) teeth were extracted. Individuals with PDs had more teeth restored (p = 0.01) and extracted (p < 0.001) than individuals with IPD. Private home residents had more teeth restored (p < 0.001) but less teeth extracted (p = 0.003) than nursing home residents. Special needs individuals’ oral health backlog should be tackled in private and institutional care modalities alike. Full article
Article
The Role of Dental Occlusion and Neuromuscular Behavior in Professional Ballet Dancers’ Performance: A Pilot Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030251 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Clinical practice and some scientific evidence seem to suggest that there is some kind of relationship between the components that form the postural chain. For professional dancers, good posture and balance are essential. The aim of the present retrospective study is to evaluate [...] Read more.
Clinical practice and some scientific evidence seem to suggest that there is some kind of relationship between the components that form the postural chain. For professional dancers, good posture and balance are essential. The aim of the present retrospective study is to evaluate whether gnathological treatment could have an impact on the postural balance and sports performance of professional ballet dancers. Electromyographic (EMG) data and balance tests were recorded before and after six months of treatment with a customized occlusal splint. Twenty athletes were examined during ballet exercises in terms of balance and speed of execution by two experienced clinicians. The results showed statistically significant changes for all EMG tests carried out and the Flamingo Balance Test. It appears that the use of a customized occlusal device improved neuro-muscular coordination and the overall performance of dancers. Full article
Article
Complete-Arch Accuracy of Four Intraoral Scanners: An In Vitro Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030246 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to define the accuracy of four intraoral scanners (IOS) through the analysis of digital impressions of a complete dental arch model. Eight metal inserts were placed on the model as reference points and then it was scanned [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to define the accuracy of four intraoral scanners (IOS) through the analysis of digital impressions of a complete dental arch model. Eight metal inserts were placed on the model as reference points and then it was scanned with a laboratory scanner in order to obtain the reference model. Subsequently, the reference model was scanned with four IOS (Carestream 3600, CEREC Omnicam, True Definition Scanner, Trios 3Shape). Linear measurements were traced on an STL file between the chosen reference points and divided into four categories: three-element mesiodistal, five-element mesiodistal, diagonal, and contralateral measurements. The digital reference values for the measurements were then compared with the values obtained from the scans to analyze the accuracy of the IOS using ANOVA. There were no statistically significant differences between the measurements of the digital scans obtained with the four IOS systems for any of the measurement groups tested. Full article
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Article
Proton Therapy for Mandibula Plate Phantom
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020167 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Purpose: In this study, the required dose rates for optimal treatment of tumoral tissues when using proton therapy in the treatment of defective tumours seen in mandibles has been calculated. We aimed to protect the surrounding soft and hard tissues from unnecessary radiation [...] Read more.
Purpose: In this study, the required dose rates for optimal treatment of tumoral tissues when using proton therapy in the treatment of defective tumours seen in mandibles has been calculated. We aimed to protect the surrounding soft and hard tissues from unnecessary radiation as well as to prevent complications of radiation. Bragg curves of therapeutic energized protons for two different mandible (molar and premolar) plate phantoms were computed and compared with similar calculations in the literature. The results were found to be within acceptable deviation values. Methods: In this study, mandibular tooth plate phantoms were modelled for the molar and premolar areas and then a Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the Bragg curve, lateral straggle/range and recoil values of protons remaining in the therapeutic energy ranges. The mass and atomic densities of all the jawbone layers were selected and the effect of layer type and thickness on the Bragg curve, lateral straggle/range and the recoil were investigated. As protons move through different layers of density, lateral straggle and increases in the range were observed. A range of energies was used for the treatment of tumours at different depths in the mandible phantom. Results: Simulations revealed that as the cortical bone thickness increased, Bragg peak position decreased between 0.47–3.3%. An increase in the number of layers results in a decrease in the Bragg peak position. Finally, as the proton energy increased, the amplitude of the second peak and its effect on Bragg peak position decreased. Conclusion: These findings should guide the selection of appropriate energy levels in the treatment of tumour structures without damaging surrounding tissues. Full article
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Review
Diode Laser Management of Primary Extranasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Presenting as Maxillary Epulis: Report of a Case and Literature Review
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010033 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare vascular neoplasm, mostly occurring in adolescent males, and representing 0.05% of all head and neck tumors. Nevertheless, it is usually recognized as the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the nasopharynx. Usually, it originates from the posterolateral [...] Read more.
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare vascular neoplasm, mostly occurring in adolescent males, and representing 0.05% of all head and neck tumors. Nevertheless, it is usually recognized as the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the nasopharynx. Usually, it originates from the posterolateral wall of the nasopharynx and, although histologically benign, classically shows a locally aggressive behavior with bone destruction as well as spreading through natural foramina and/or fissures to the nasopharynx, nasal and paranasal cavities, spheno-palatine foramen, infratemporal fossa and, very rarely, to the cranial cavity. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma is considered a distinct entity due to older age at presentation, different localizations (outside the nasopharyngeal pterygopalatine fossa) and attenuated clinical course. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma has been sporadically described in the oral cavity. We report a case of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma with primary and exclusive involvement of the adherent gingiva of the anterior maxilla, managed by preoperative diode laser trans-mucosal photocoagulation and subsequent surgical removal. The current literature on primary extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma is also reviewed. Full article
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2020

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Article
A Minimally Invasive Technique for Short Spiral Implant Insertion with Contextual Crestal Sinus Lifting in the Atrophic Maxilla: A Preliminary Report
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010011 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 881
Abstract
The most recently reported techniques for the rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior maxilla are increasingly less invasive, as they are generally oriented to avoid sinus floor elevation with lateral access. The authors describe a mini-invasive surgical technique for short spiral implant insertion for [...] Read more.
The most recently reported techniques for the rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior maxilla are increasingly less invasive, as they are generally oriented to avoid sinus floor elevation with lateral access. The authors describe a mini-invasive surgical technique for short spiral implant insertion for the prosthetic rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior maxilla, which could be considered a combination of several previously described techniques based on the under-preparation of the implant site to improve fixture primary stability and crestal approach to the sinus floor elevation without heterologous bone graft. Eighty short spiral implants were inserted in the molar area of the maxilla in patients with 4.5–6 mm of alveolar bone, measured on pre-operative computed tomography. The surgical technique involved careful drilling for the preparation of implant sites at differentiated depths, allowing bone dislocation in the apical direction, traumatic crestal sinus membrane elevation, and insertion of an implant (with spiral morphology) longer than pre-operative measurements. Prostheses were all single crowns. In all cases, a spiral implant 2–4 mm longer than the residual bone was placed. Only two implants were lost due to peri-implantitis but subsequently replaced and followed-up. Bone loss values around the implants after three months (at the re-opening) ranged from 0 to 0.6 mm, (median value: 0.1 mm), while after two years, the same values ranged from 0.4 to 1.3 mm (median value: 0.7 mm). Clinical post-operative complications did not occur. After ten years, no implant has been lost. Overall, the described protocol seems to show good results in terms of predictability and patient compliance. Full article
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Article
Influence of Dental Malocclusion on Body Posture and Foot Posture in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040485 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
The number of studies that investigate the correlations between the temporomandibular system and body posture, postural control, or the distribution of plantar pressure has recently been increasing. However, most of the existing information is not conclusive. Therefore, the study objective was to evaluate [...] Read more.
The number of studies that investigate the correlations between the temporomandibular system and body posture, postural control, or the distribution of plantar pressure has recently been increasing. However, most of the existing information is not conclusive. Therefore, the study objective was to evaluate if the features of dental malocclusion are correlated with body posture alterations at the lower limb level. This is a multicentre cross-sectional study with 289 children (8–14 years). Angle’s molar relation was analysed at the dental level. The postural control and the plantar pressure distribution were recorded via a force platform. Correlation and inferential analysis between the Angle class and the foot’s biomechanics were tested. The centre of gravity is anteriorised in Angle’s Class II in both the molar class (p ≤ 0.001) and the canine class (p ≤ 0.001). Likewise, a relationship was observed between the contact surface and Angle’s classes, being higher in class III than in II (p ≤ 0.001). The plantigrade phase is shortened in Angle’s Class III. A relationship was found between Angle’s Class II and a forward movement of the centre of gravity. No relationship was found between the Foot Posture Index and the truncated scaphoid height and the dental classification. An evident relationship between the gait typology and dental malocclusion was not found. Full article
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