Special Issue "Qualitative Health Research Applied to Clinical and Educational Settings"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jose Granero-Molina
Website
Guest Editor
Nursing Science, Physiotherapy and Medicine Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Almeria, 04120 Almería, Spain
Interests: Clinical nursing; Social and Health Sciences; Qualitative Research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Healthcare will focus on qualitative health research. Health is the body’s ability to resist becoming ill, a force that opposes suffering and favors recovery. Epidemiological, genetic, and clinical research represents an advance in the knowledge, diagnosis, treatment, and care of diseases. However, beyond scientific and technical advances, responding to the question, “what can I do for my health?” entails a commitment to ourselves and to society. Instead of becoming exclusive of specialists and technologies, taking charge of our health brings us closer to a free, dignified, and responsible life. For this reason, it is vital to know how we experience disease and how couples, families, and health providers or educators live through it. The health sciences search for knowledge, techniques, and skills, but also training, health promotion, and ways to cope with disease. The health sciences involve living bodies that study and treat other living bodies, sometimes reduced to mere physical bodies. While we are committed to empirical–analytical research and scientific evidence, following E. Levinas, being cared for means attention, concern, and accompaniment, everything that “the face of the other demands of us”. This position concerns the health–disease process in general, with implications in the clinical and educational environments and in prevention and health promotion. This Special Issue welcomes theoretical and original articles, empirical reviews, and commentaries that provide information on qualitative research applied to all phases of the health–disease process. We emphasize the clinical experiences of patients, families, caregivers or healthcare providers. Ethnographic and phenomenological studies, critical theory, action research or grounded theory are of interest. Experiences in the teaching–learning process in the area of medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, podiatry, pharmacy, psychology, social sciences or sexology are welcome.

Dr. Jose Granero-Molina
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Qualitative research
  • Phenomenology
  • Ethnography
  • Critical theory
  • Participatory action research
  • Clinical nursing
  • Clinical medicine
  • Health psychology
  • Social sciences

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Primary School Teachers’ Perspective of Sexual Education in Spain. A Qualitative Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030287 - 05 Mar 2021
Abstract
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, [...] Read more.
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the perspective of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content thematic analysis. Fifteen open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: “In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education” and “Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families”. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Anxiety Levels of Nursing Students Because of e-Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030252 - 01 Mar 2021
Abstract
The continued expand of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, confinement measures and an urgent change in the education of nursing students from traditional education to distance learning throughout the country affect the mental health of university students. This study analyzed state-trait anxiety [...] Read more.
The continued expand of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, confinement measures and an urgent change in the education of nursing students from traditional education to distance learning throughout the country affect the mental health of university students. This study analyzed state-trait anxiety levels of nursing students because of e-Learning during two periods of the COVID-19 confinement. A mixed follow-up study was used, which evaluates the same cohort cross-sectionally but with a longitudinal component. A sample of 460 nursing students of the Nursing Degree at the University of Lorca (Murcia) and University of Almería (Spain) completed an online anxiety level questionnaire using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) during the first and fourth weeks of the COVID-19 confinement. Total anxiety levels increased in the fourth week, as compared to the first week (first week: 50.4 ± 20.8 and fourth week: 59.9 ± 10.6 (p < 0.001)). The linear regression model showed that the significant predictors for STAI anxiety in nursing students were being in the last year of the degree program, being female, and spending confinement in a house without a garden. In general, most nursing students were emotionally affected by high levels of anxiety of state-trait during the COVID-19 outbreak. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Engaging Mothers on the Growth of School-Age Children in a Rural South African Health and Demographic Site: A Qualitative Insight
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020225 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 256
Abstract
A qualitative study was conducted to explore mothers’ insights on the growth of school-age children in a rural Health and Demographic site of Limpopo Province, in South Africa. The participants were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected from seven focus group discussions, [...] Read more.
A qualitative study was conducted to explore mothers’ insights on the growth of school-age children in a rural Health and Demographic site of Limpopo Province, in South Africa. The participants were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected from seven focus group discussions, which were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. NVivo10 was used to analyse interview transcripts, following qualitative thematic analysis. Fifty-four mothers aged between 27 and 52 years were interviewed. Unfavourable sociodemographic status with poor living conditions of mothers were observed, particularly in terms of unemployment, minimal tertiary education, and rural locality. The perceptions of mothers on child growth linked growth of their children to various factors such as poverty and socioeconomic status, genetic/family heredity, and household environment. Mothers further related child growth to purchasing power and decisions regarding types of food, food unavailability, affordability issues, feeding beliefs and practices; and child food preferences, school feeding schemes, and maternal and societal cultural beliefs and practices. Despite their concerns, mothers perceived that their children were growing well, but differently. It is worth noting that the views of mothers on child growth were up to their aptitude level and might have been restricted due to their level of education and rural locality. Hence, there is a need for novel information, education, and communication strategies to effectively reach mothers, especially in rural areas, regarding the importance of identifying children with growth failure and its prevention. Mothers should be able to identify when a child is affected by growth failure and to seek healthcare, in order to prevent children from progressing to severe forms. This study informs on the timing of nutritional interventions for children and context-specific health promotion and health education programs to improve the knowledge of mothers on child growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Current Issues on Research Conducted to Improve Women’s Health
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010092 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
There are varied lessons to be learned regarding the current methodological approaches to women’s health research. In the present scheme of growing medical literature and inflation of novel results claiming significance, the sheer amount of information can render evidence-based practice confusing. The factors [...] Read more.
There are varied lessons to be learned regarding the current methodological approaches to women’s health research. In the present scheme of growing medical literature and inflation of novel results claiming significance, the sheer amount of information can render evidence-based practice confusing. The factors that classically determined the impact of discoveries appear to be losing ground: citation count and publication rates, hierarchy in author lists according to contribution, and a journal’s impact factor. Through a comprehensive literature search on the currently available data from theses, opinion, and original articles and reviews on this topic, we seek to present to clinicians a narrative synthesis of three crucial axes underlying the totality of the research production chain: (a) critical advances in research methodology, (b) the interplay of academy and industry in a trial conduct, and (c) review- and publication-associated developments. We also provide specific recommendations on the study design and conduct, reviewing the processes and dissemination of data and the conclusions and implementation of findings. Overall, clinicians and the public should be aware of the discourse behind the marketing of alleged breakthrough research. Still, multiple initiatives, such as patient review and strict, supervised literature synthesis, have become more widely accepted. The “bottom-up” approach of a wide dissemination of information to clinicians, together with practical incentives for stakeholders with competing interests to collaborate, promise to improve women’s healthcare. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Emotions, Feelings, and Experiences of Social Workers While Attending to Vulnerable Groups: A Qualitative Approach
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010087 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Social workers in the community setting are in constant contact with the suffering experienced by the most vulnerable individual. Social interventions are complex and affect social workers’ emotional well-being. The aim of this study was to identify the emotions, feelings, and experiences social [...] Read more.
Social workers in the community setting are in constant contact with the suffering experienced by the most vulnerable individual. Social interventions are complex and affect social workers’ emotional well-being. The aim of this study was to identify the emotions, feelings, and experiences social workers have while attending to individuals in situations of vulnerability and hardship. A qualitative methodology based on hermeneutic phenomenology was used. Six interviews and two focus group sessions were conducted with social workers from the community social services and health services of the Andalusian Public Health System in the province of Almería (Spain). Atlas.ti 8.0 software was used for discourse analysis. The professionals highlighted the vulnerability of certain groups, such as the elderly and minors, people with serious mental problems, and people with scarce or no economic resources. Daily contact with situations of suffering generates a variety of feelings and emotions (anger, sadness, fear, concern). Therefore, more attention should be paid to working with the emotions of social workers who are exposed to tense and threatening situations. Peer support, talking, and discussions of experiences are pointed out as relevant by all social workers. Receiving training and support (in formal settings) in order to learn how to deal with vulnerable groups could be positive for their work and their professional and personal quality of life. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Patient-Related Factors of Medialization Laryngoplasty with Autologous Thyroid Cartilage
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040521 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 277
Abstract
(1) Background: Medialization laryngoplasty with autologous thyroid cartilage (MLATC) is a surgical treatment for glottal closure insufficiency (GCI) resulted from unilateral vocal fold paralysis/paresis (UVFP) and vocal fold atrophy. We aimed to survey the influence of patient-related factors on the outcomes after MLATC. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Medialization laryngoplasty with autologous thyroid cartilage (MLATC) is a surgical treatment for glottal closure insufficiency (GCI) resulted from unilateral vocal fold paralysis/paresis (UVFP) and vocal fold atrophy. We aimed to survey the influence of patient-related factors on the outcomes after MLATC. (2) Methods: The study enrolled 35 patients with GCI who underwent MLATC. Patient voice data were recorded before and after MLATC by using multiple acoustic parameters and subjective assessment in a computerized speech laboratory. GCI patients were characterized into subgroups based on three factors: age, ≥60 vs. <60 years; sex, men vs. women; and BMI, ≥24 vs. <24. (3) Results: When the subgroups were compared, men did not have better results after surgery than women. Patients ages < 60 years did not exhibit any significantly different outcome compared with those aged ≥ 60 years. Patients with BMI ≥ 24 did not have any significantly different outcome compared with those with BMI < 24. The subgroups of age, sex, and BMI had no significant difference in cumulative voice recovery and summation of GRBAS (G = grade, R = roughness, B = breathiness, A = asthenia, and S = strain). (4) Conclusions: MLATC is a good alternative surgery with long-term improvement in GCI patients. There is no evidence that age, sex, or BMI affect the functional outcome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Internet Use on Elderly Health: Empirical Study Based on Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) Data
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040482 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 536
Abstract
In the current era, the rapid spread of Internet technology has combined with various traditional industries; this provides new research perspectives and solutions for current problems, such as those in the elderly care industry. Elderly health is an important social problem in various [...] Read more.
In the current era, the rapid spread of Internet technology has combined with various traditional industries; this provides new research perspectives and solutions for current problems, such as those in the elderly care industry. Elderly health is an important social problem in various countries, and governments have turned to the internet for new methods and better solutions. However, internet-use behavior has a certain influence on the elderly’s health status. This study investigates the effects of internet use on the elderly’s physical health, mental health, and self-rated health, along with the moderating role of individual cognitive ability in the above relationship. This study uses data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2012 and 2015 as samples for analysis via the hierarchical regression method. The sample is from China and had 2821 and 3185 valid respondents in 2012 and 2015, respectively. Results show that internet use significantly affects the physical and mental health of the elderly and does not significantly affect self-rated health. In addition, individual cognitive ability plays a negative moderating role between internet use and physical and mental health. Finally, on the basis of results analysis and discussion, this study provides new recommendations to achieve targeted health improvements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stress, Burnout, and Low Self-Efficacy of Nursing Professionals: A Qualitative Inquiry
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040424 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Nursing professionals face a high level of stress and burnout due to overloaded responsibilities, which may cause a low level of self-efficacy. From the perspective of nursing professionals, the research aims to understand what are the sources of stress and burnout which would [...] Read more.
Nursing professionals face a high level of stress and burnout due to overloaded responsibilities, which may cause a low level of self-efficacy. From the perspective of nursing professionals, the research aims to understand what are the sources of stress and burnout which would reduce the self-efficacy and the unbalanced patient ratio and how would nursing professionals describe their experiences, sources of stress and burnout, and self-efficacy. Based on the snowball sampling strategy, 60 nursing professionals were invited for qualitative research data collection. Based on the lens of the self-efficacy approach, the results indicated that the environmental factors, including workplace bullying, family stress, misunderstanding of public members, and personal development and career enhancement took important roles in increasing their stress and burnout and in reducing their self-efficacy. The outcomes of this study discovered the social status and discrimination toward nursing professionals. Government leaders, policymakers, and researchers should take this research as an opportunity to reform their policy for human resource management and education for the respectfulness of medical and nursing professionals in the public health system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Learning Assessment from a Lecture about Fundamentals on Basic Life Support among Undergraduate Students of Health Sciences
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040379 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Introduction: Cardiac arrest is one of the leading public health problems worldwide and in Brazil. A victim of cardiorespiratory arrest needs prompt basic life support (BLS) to increase survival. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a synthesis lecture on BLS given [...] Read more.
Introduction: Cardiac arrest is one of the leading public health problems worldwide and in Brazil. A victim of cardiorespiratory arrest needs prompt basic life support (BLS) to increase survival. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a synthesis lecture on BLS given to university students in Health Sciences. Methods: A total of 422 undergraduate students in Nursing, Physiotherapy, and Medicine participated in this study. Data were collected by applying a pre-test through a BLS questionnaire based on the American Heart Association guidelines. Results: Students obtained a minimum grade of 40% of the pre-test questions. The score increased to 75% in the post-test; the students with the best performance in the pre-test maintained a higher total number of correct answers in the post-test. There was also better performance in those with previous training in BLS. The students from the first year of medical school were the ones who benefited the most from the lecture. Conclusion: Regardless of the grade course, the Health Science students showed a significant improvement in their level of knowledge after attending the synthesis lecture, indicating its adequacy to promote initial learning about BLS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Violence against Women Irregular Migrants Who Arrive in Spain in Small Boats
Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030299 - 26 Aug 2020
Viewed by 905
Abstract
African irregular migrants risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean Sea in small boats hoping to reach Europe. Women irregular migrants (WIMs) are an especially vulnerable group that suffer from violence and sexual aggression, but little is known about their actual experiences. The objective [...] Read more.
African irregular migrants risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean Sea in small boats hoping to reach Europe. Women irregular migrants (WIMs) are an especially vulnerable group that suffer from violence and sexual aggression, but little is known about their actual experiences. The objective of our study is to describe and understand the violence against WIMs who arrive in Spain in small boats. A qualitative study based on Gadamer’s phenomenology was used. The data collection included twenty-six in-depth interviews with WIMs. Three main themes arose: “Poverty and discrimination push WIMs into migrating”; “WIMs as a paradigm of extreme vulnerability”, and “WIMs in small boats should raise the alarm”. WIMs who arrive to Europe in small boats have a history of violence, rape, prostitution, forced pregnancy, and human trafficking. Emergency care must include gynecological examinations and must make detecting sexual violence and human trafficking of WIMs part of their care protocols. Full article
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