Special Issue "Marine Sediments and Marine Environments"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nieves Lopez-Gonzalez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), C.O. Málaga, 29640 Fuengirola, Málaga, Spain
Interests: marine depositional systems; grain-size analysis and techniques; habitat mapping; sedimentological and geochemical proxies; rare-earth elements as environmental proxies; heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments
Dr. David Casas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), Madrid 28760, Spain
Interests: sedimentary record in continental shelf, continental slope and basins; physical properties of marine sediments and submarine landslides; architecture of continental margins and sedimentary systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The knowledge of sediment composition and processes of the different marine environments is the base for any marine geological study. The marine sedimentary record is highly dependent on the environmental conditions of the depositional area due to both the inputs and the sedimentary processes. Recent developments and availability in analytical procedures have promoted detailed studies on sediment properties applied to better characterize marine environments and their peculiarities.

This Special Issue is a good opportunity to publish recent challenges achieve in the studies of marine sediments and marine environments that let increasing the knowledge applied to interpretation and modelling of the marine processes and products. Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue of Geosciences is to cover the following subjects:

  • Sediments and sedimentary processes in the continental margin.
  • Late Pleistocene-Holocene marine records of different marine environments.
  • Factors controlling marine sediments deposition and depositional environments.
  • Facies analysis in recent marine environments.
  • Mapping of marine sedimentary environments and related processes.
  • Physical properties to characterize marine environments.
  • Geochemistry of the sedimentary record as key features for interpreting marine environments.
  • Numerical modelling in sedimentology applied to marine sedimentary environments.
  • Sedimentary record of singular marine environments as mud volcanoes, pockmarks, carbonate mounds, seamounts, canyons, etc.
  • Response of marine environments to climate change: sedimentary facies and depositional systems.

Dr. Nieves Lopez-Gonzalez
Dr. David Casas
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Marine sediments
  • Marine environments
  • Sediment properties
  • Sedimentary processes
  • Marine sedimentary record
  • Marine sedimentary facies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Proxy Approach for Identifying Heinrich Events in Sediment Cores from Hatton Bank (NE Atlantic Ocean)
Geosciences 2020, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10010014 - 27 Dec 2019
Abstract
A series of six gravity cores has been used to reconstruct the depositional history of Hatton Bank (Rockall Plateau, NE Atlantic Ocean). The cores have been studied for magnetic susceptibility (MS), geochemical composition, grain size distribution, and a semi-quantitative foraminiferal association. Two main [...] Read more.
A series of six gravity cores has been used to reconstruct the depositional history of Hatton Bank (Rockall Plateau, NE Atlantic Ocean). The cores have been studied for magnetic susceptibility (MS), geochemical composition, grain size distribution, and a semi-quantitative foraminiferal association. Two main interbedded facies have been described: (i) calcareous ooze; and (ii) lithogenous silt. The study reveals prominent peaks from the MS signal, silt, Mg/Ca, Fe/Ca, Al/Ca, and Rare Earth Elements normalised by Continental Crust (REE/CC), which are sensitive indicators for Heinrich events (H1, H2, H3, H4, and H5) and ash layers. These peaks may relate to alternations in dominance of the calcareous and lithogenic facies. The sediment displays a high percentage of carbonate in interglacial layers but is lithogenic-dominated in glacial stages. The layers with prominent lithic-rich and foraminifera-poor sediments (established as Heinrich layers) may be related to a possible palaeoclimatic effect, where freshwater discharged during iceberg melting may have reduced the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). In the study area, the mean sedimentation rates for the last glacial as ~4.2 cm ka−1 and ~1.4 cm ka−1 for the last ~18 ka (interglacial period) have been estimated. Besides this evidence, Fe/Ca and MS peaks may reflect the presence of basalt, either introduced through ice-rafting or transported and redistributed by bottom currents in the study area. Certain indices, including MS and Fe/Ca, are proposed as good proxies for detecting Heinrich events and ash layers in the Hatton Bank sediments and, in consequence, are parameters that can be used to infer strengthened/weakened NADW formation, according to stadials/interstadials. Moreover, we suggest that the northernmost boundary of the area with evidence of Heinrich events may be situated around 57°38′ N in the Hatton–Rockall area, at least for H4, based on the variation of the Mg/Ca and Fe/Ca curves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sediments and Marine Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Leaching Behavior of As, Pb, Ni, Fe, and Mn from Subsurface Marine and Nonmarine Depositional Environment in Central Kanto Plain, Japan
Geosciences 2019, 9(10), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9100435 - 08 Oct 2019
Abstract
The leaching behavior of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) was investigated from subsurface core sediment of marine and nonmarine depositional environments in central Kanto Plain, Japan. A four-step sequential extraction technique was adopted to determine the chemical [...] Read more.
The leaching behavior of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) was investigated from subsurface core sediment of marine and nonmarine depositional environments in central Kanto Plain, Japan. A four-step sequential extraction technique was adopted to determine the chemical speciation, potential mobility, and bioavailability of metals under natural conditions in variable depositional environments. In addition, a correlation of these properties with pore water and total metal content was carried out. The concentration of As in pore water was found to be 2–3 times higher than the permissible limit (10 µg/L) for drinking water and leachate in fluvial, transitional, and marine environments. The trend of potential mobile fractions of As, Pb, and Ni showed Fe–Mn oxide bound > carbonate bound > ion exchangeable bound > water soluble in the fluvial environment. However, in the marine environment, it showed Fe–Mn oxide bound > water soluble > carbonate bound > ion exchangeable bound for As. The leaching of As in this fluvial environment is due to the organic matter-mediated, reductive dissolution of Fe–Mn oxide bound, where Mn is the scavenger. The amount of total content of As and sulfur (S) in transitional sediment reflects an elevated level of leachate in pore water, which is controlled by S reduction. However, the leaching of As in marine sediment is controlled by pH and organic matter content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sediments and Marine Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
133,000 Years of Sedimentary Record in a Contourite Drift in the Western Alboran Sea: Sediment Sources and Paleocurrent Reconstruction
Geosciences 2019, 9(8), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9080345 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Djibouti Ville Drift is part of a contourite depositional system located on the southern side of the Djibouti Ville Seamount in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean). The sedimentary record of a core located in the drift deposits has been characterized to achieve [...] Read more.
The Djibouti Ville Drift is part of a contourite depositional system located on the southern side of the Djibouti Ville Seamount in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean). The sedimentary record of a core located in the drift deposits has been characterized to achieve the possible sediment sources for the Saharan dust supply and the paleocurrent variability related to Mediterranean intermediate waters for the last 133 kyr. Three end-member grain-size distributions characterize the sediment record transported by the bottom current to address the different aeolian populations, i.e., coarse EM1, silty EM2, and fine EM3. For these particles, the most likely source areas are the Saharan sedimentary basins and deserts, as well as the cratonic basins of the Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor. The prevalence of these main source areas is shown in the core record, where a noticeable change occurs during the MIS 5 to MIS 4 transition. Some punctual sediment inputs from the seamount have been recognized during sea-level lowstand, but there is no evidence of fluvial supply in the drift deposits. The paleocurrent reconstruction allows the characterizing of the stadial and cold periods by large increases in the mean sortable silt fraction and UP10, which point to an enhanced bottom current strength related to intermediate water masses. Conversely, interglacial periods are characterized by weaker bottom current activity, which is associated with denser deep water masses. These proxies also recorded the intensified Saharan wind transport that occurred during interstadial/stadial transitions. All these results point to the importance of combining sediment source areas with major climatic oscillations and paleocurrent variability in palaeoceanographic sedimentary archives, which may help to develop future climate prediction models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sediments and Marine Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Marine Sediments from a Contaminated Site: Geotechnical Properties and Chemo-Mechanical Coupling Processes
Geosciences 2019, 9(8), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9080333 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The city of Taranto in the south of Italy is one of the areas declared as “at high risk of environmental crisis” by the Italian government because it represents one of the most complex industrial sites in Europe, located near urban areas of [...] Read more.
The city of Taranto in the south of Italy is one of the areas declared as “at high risk of environmental crisis” by the Italian government because it represents one of the most complex industrial sites in Europe, located near urban areas of high population density. The rich ecosystem of the Mar Piccolo basin, located at north of Taranto, started exhibiting unconfutable signs of environmental pollution, confirmed by the high concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Among the different aspects involved in the environmental studies aiming at the basin remediation, this paper focuses on submarine sediments and reports some results of the geotechnical laboratory investigations which made also use of non-standard equipment and revised procedures for data interpretation in order to take account of the sediments’ contamination and heterogeneities. The geotechnical laboratory tests show that, despite the Mar Piccolo recent Holocene sediments having similar origin and composition to those of the Sub-Apennine clay basic formation, their behavioral facets appear to be altered by the presence of contaminants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Results of washing tests are also presented as a first attempt to quantify the effects of chemo-mechanical coupling processes on the plasticity properties of the shallow sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sediments and Marine Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Metal Distribution and Short-Time Variability in Recent Sediments from the Ganges River towards the Bay of Bengal (India)
Geosciences 2019, 9(6), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060260 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Ganges River receives inputs from highly populated cities of India (New Delhi, Calcutta, among others) and a strong influence of anthropogenic activities until reaching the Bay of Bengal. It is a seasonal river with 80% of discharges occurring between July and October [...] Read more.
The Ganges River receives inputs from highly populated cities of India (New Delhi, Calcutta, among others) and a strong influence of anthropogenic activities until reaching the Bay of Bengal. It is a seasonal river with 80% of discharges occurring between July and October during monsoon. The land-based activities next to the shore lead to discharges of untreated domestic and industrial effluents, inputs of agricultural chemicals, discharges of organic matter (cremations), and discharges of chemicals from aquaculture farms. In spite of the UNESCO declaring Human Patrimony the National Park Sundarbans, located in the delta, contamination has increased over time and it dramatically intensifies during the monsoon period due to the flooding of the drainage basin. Vertical element distribution (Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was studied in sediments collected in different stations towards the Hügli Estuary. Results determined no vertical gradient associated with the analyzed sediment samples, which informs about severe sediment dynamic in the area that probably relates to tidal hydrodynamics and seasonal variation floods. The multivariate analysis results showed different associations among metals and in some cases between some of them (Co, Zn, Pb, and Cu) and the organic carbon. These allow the identification of different geochemical processes in the area and their relationship with the sources of contamination such as discharge of domestic and industrial effluents and diffuse sources enhanced by the monsoons. Also, an environmental risk value was given to the studied area by comparing the analyzed concentrations to quality guidelines adopted in other countries. It showed an estimated risk associated with the concentration of the metal Cu measured in the area of Kadwip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sediments and Marine Environments)
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