Special Issue "Hydrological and Hydrogeological Risks"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Hazards".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Maria Teresa Brunetti

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, Perugia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: geomorphology, natural hazards; warning systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydrogeological instability and the associated risks are major issues in many countries all over the world. Territory fragility, questionable management policies, and undisputable climate changes make the occurrence of natural hazards, such as landslides and floods, a major source of social risk.

Hydrogeological risk is commonly tackled through four main actions, i.e., prediction, prevention, mitigation, and adaptation. In addition to these is the ability to recover quickly after calamitous events (resilience). The prediction of phenomena associated with hydrogeological risk requires both a thorough knowledge of the territory (e.g., the presence of vulnerable elements such as housing, schools, workplaces, etc.) and the ability to predict meteorological events with sufficient reliability. Instruments suitable for landslide and flood forecasting may be national, regional and local warning systems based on the comparison of rainfall conditions that triggered landslide or flood events and rainfall measures and forecasts. Obviously, the best prevention against the hydrogeological risk is the absence of vulnerable elements in dangerous areas, but is also useful the awareness in preventing dangerous behaviors (e.g., getting into the street to move the car or go down to the cellar during flooding). The mitigation of hydrogeological risk is, perhaps, the most critical action since it requires economical resources, that are often unavailable, to intervene on vulnerable elements, such as infrastructure in areas at risk and subject to landslides or floods. Adapting to hydrogeological risk involves learning to live with the possible occurrence of landslides and floods, trying to limit its negative (present and future) impacts. Any mitigation and adaptation strategy must nevertheless take into account the principle of sustainability, which mainly consists in promoting the preservation of the environment and not affecting the interests of future generations.

Dr. Maria Teresa Brunetti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

This Special Issue of Geosciences will collect and discuss recent results regarding the following topics:
  • Prediction and prevention of hydrogeological events
  • Landslide and flood early warning systems
  • Case studies of hydrogeological events
  • Social and economic impact of hydrogeological events
  • Mitigation and adaptation strategies for hydrogeological events
  • Effect of climate changes on hydrogeological events

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Economic Risk Evaluation in Urban Flooding and Instability-Prone Areas: The Case Study of San Giovanni Rotondo (Southern Italy)
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040112
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (80709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Estimating economic losses caused on buildings and other civil engineering works due to flooding events is often a difficult task. The accuracy of the estimate is affected by the availability of detailed data regarding the return period of the flooding event, vulnerability of [...] Read more.
Estimating economic losses caused on buildings and other civil engineering works due to flooding events is often a difficult task. The accuracy of the estimate is affected by the availability of detailed data regarding the return period of the flooding event, vulnerability of exposed assets, and type of economy run in the affected area. This paper aims to provide a quantitative methodology for the assessment of economic losses associated with flood scenarios. The proposed methodology was performed for an urban area in Southern Italy prone to hydrogeological instabilities. At first, the main physical characteristics of the area such as rainfall, land use, permeability, roughness, and slopes of the area under investigation were estimated in order to obtain input for flooding simulations. Afterwards, the analysis focused on the spatial variability incidence of the rainfall parameters in flood events. The hydraulic modeling provided different flood hazard scenarios. The risk curve obtained by plotting economic consequences vs. the return period for each hazard scenario can be a useful tool for local authorities to identify adequate risk mitigation measures and therefore prioritize the economic resources necessary for the implementation of such mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological and Hydrogeological Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
A Basin Approach to a Hydrological Service Delivery System in the Amur River Basin
Geosciences 2018, 8(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8030093
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
PDF Full-text (8048 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the basin approach to the design, development, and operation of a hydrological forecasting and early warning system in a large transboundary river basin of high flood potential, where accurate, reliable, and timely available daily water-level and reservoir-inflow forecasts are essential [...] Read more.
This paper presents the basin approach to the design, development, and operation of a hydrological forecasting and early warning system in a large transboundary river basin of high flood potential, where accurate, reliable, and timely available daily water-level and reservoir-inflow forecasts are essential for water-related economic and social activities (the Amur River basin case study). Key aspects of basin-scale system planning and implementation are considered, from choosing efficient forecast models and techniques, to developing and operating data-management procedures, to disseminating operational forecasts using web-GIS. The latter, making the relevant forecast data available in real time (via Internet), visual, and well interpretable, serves as a good tool for raising awareness of possible floods in a large region with transport and industrial hubs located alongside the Amur River (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological and Hydrogeological Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Springtime Flood Risk Reduction in Rural Arctic: A Comparative Study of Interior Alaska, United States and Central Yakutia, Russia
Geosciences 2018, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8030090
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Every spring, riverine communities throughout the Arctic face flood risk. As the river ice begins to thaw and break up, ice jams—accumulation of chunks and sheets of ice in the river channel, force melt water and ice floes to back up for dozens [...] Read more.
Every spring, riverine communities throughout the Arctic face flood risk. As the river ice begins to thaw and break up, ice jams—accumulation of chunks and sheets of ice in the river channel, force melt water and ice floes to back up for dozens of kilometers and flood vulnerable communities upstream. Via a comparative analysis between two flood-prone communities in Alaska and Yakutia (Siberia), this study examines key components of flood risk—hazards, exposure, and vulnerability, and existing practices in flood risk reduction in rural Arctic. The research sites are two rural communities—Galena (Yukon River) and Edeytsy (Lena River), which sustained major ice-jam floods in May 2013. The data was acquired through a combination of direct observations on site, review of documents and archives, focus group discussions, and surveys. Five focus groups with US and Russian representatives from disaster management agencies revealed a few similar patterns as well as significant differences in flood risk reduction strategies. The main differences included higher reliance on mechanical and short-term ice jam and flood mitigation efforts (e.g., ice-jam demolition) in the Russian Arctic, and lack of a centralized flood management model in the US. Surveys conducted among population at risk during the site visits to Edeytsy (November 2015) and Galena (March 2016) revealed higher satisfaction levels with the existing flood risk reduction efforts among Edeytsy residents. Survey respondents in Galena indicated the lack of ice jam removal and other flood prevention measures as the key drawback in the existing flood management. Historical analysis, conducted via the disaster Pressure and Release (PAR) model, revealed that springtime flood risk in both regions results from complex interactions among a series of natural processes that generate conditions of hazard, and human actions that generate conditions of communities’ exposure and vulnerability. The analysis revealed colonial heritage, top-down governance, and limited inclusion of local communities in the decision-making as the driving forces of vulnerability in both regions. Seasonal weather patterns and regional river channel morphology determine the location, severity, and duration of floods. The analysis also revealed the importance of continuous communication between all stakeholders in timely and effective flood risk management in both regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological and Hydrogeological Risks)
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