Special Issue "Intestinal Microbes and Cancer"

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Yi Xu
Website
Guest Editor
Center for Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M Health Sciences Center, 2121 W. Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA
Interests: Host-pathogen interactions, microbes and cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The human gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms. It is now recognized that microbes are potent modulators of the homeostasis and disease status of the intestinal tract. The connection between microbes and cancer has important implications to cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. On one hand, individual microbes or microbial communities can cause cancer, increase cancer risks or affect the efficacy of cancer therapy. On the other hand, the effect of individual microbes or microbial communities can be influenced by host genetic, environmental and dietary factors. This Special Issue intends to focus on new developments and concepts in the field of microbes and cancer. Research or review articles on any topic within the field will be considered. We look forward to your contributions.

Assoc. Prof. Yi Xu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Genes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microbiota
  • Microbiome
  • Pathogen
  • Gastrointestinal cancers
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Tumorigenesis
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Inflammation
  • Cancer risk
  • Cancer therapy

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Functional Anthocyanin-Rich Sausages Diminish Colorectal Cancer in an Animal Model and Reduce Pro-Inflammatory Bacteria in the Intestinal Microbiota
Genes 2018, 9(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9030133 - 01 Mar 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common neoplasia in Europe, where it accounts for 28.2 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. In an effort to decrease the incidence of this disease, various prevention measures are being studied, one of which are anthocyanin-rich foods. Anthocyanins [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common neoplasia in Europe, where it accounts for 28.2 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. In an effort to decrease the incidence of this disease, various prevention measures are being studied, one of which are anthocyanin-rich foods. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidant flavonoids mainly found in flowers and colorful fruits and vegetables. These nutraceuticals have diverse biological functions once ingested, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antitumor functions. In order to test the preventive effect of these flavonoids against colorectal cancer, an animal model (Rattus norvegicus F344) was developed. In this model two doses of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg) and two treatments with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) were administered to the animals. For 20 weeks they were fed either control rat feed, control sausages, or functional sausages containing 0.1% (w/w) of anthocyanins from a mixture of dehydrated blackberries and strawberries. At the end of that period, the animals were sacrificed and their antioxidant plasma levels and digestive tract tissues were analyzed. The results revealed a statistically significant reduction in the number of colon tumors in the functional sausages cohort with respect to the control animals and an increase in the FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) total antioxidant activity in that same cohort. Colon microbiota differences were also examined via metagenomics 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing, revealing a significant reduction in populations of the pro-inflammatory Bilophila wadsworthia. Therefore, the design of functional processed meat products, such as ones enriched with anthocyanins, may be an effective strategy for preventing inflammatory digestive diseases and colorectal cancer in human populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intestinal Microbes and Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population
Genes 2018, 9(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9030119 - 26 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intestinal Microbes and Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Fiber Treatment Corrects the Composition of Gut Microbiota, Promotes SCFA Production, and Suppresses Colon Carcinogenesis
Genes 2018, 9(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9020102 - 16 Feb 2018
Cited by 50
Abstract
Epidemiological studies propose a protective role for dietary fiber in colon cancer (CRC). One possible mechanism of fiber is its fermentation property in the gut and ability to change microbiota composition and function. Here, we investigate the role of a dietary fiber mixture [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies propose a protective role for dietary fiber in colon cancer (CRC). One possible mechanism of fiber is its fermentation property in the gut and ability to change microbiota composition and function. Here, we investigate the role of a dietary fiber mixture in polyposis and elucidate potential mechanisms using TS4Cre × cAPCl°x468 mice. Stool microbiota profiling was performed, while functional prediction was done using PICRUSt. Stool short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites were measured. Histone acetylation and expression of SCFA butyrate receptor were assessed. We found that SCFA-producing bacteria were lower in the polyposis mice, suggesting a decline in the fermentation product of dietary fibers with polyposis. Next, a high fiber diet was given to polyposis mice, which significantly increased SCFA-producing bacteria as well as SCFA levels. This was associated with an increase in SCFA butyrate receptor and a significant decrease in polyposis. In conclusion, we found polyposis to be associated with dysbiotic microbiota characterized by a decline in SCFA-producing bacteria, which was targetable by high fiber treatment, leading to an increase in SCFA levels and amelioration of polyposis. The prebiotic activity of fiber, promoting beneficial bacteria, could be the key mechanism for the protective effects of fiber on colon carcinogenesis. SCFA-promoting fermentable fibers are a promising dietary intervention to prevent CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intestinal Microbes and Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Microbiomic Analysis in African Americans with Colonic Lesions Reveals Streptococcus sp.VT162 as a Marker of Neoplastic Transformation
Genes 2017, 8(11), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110314 - 09 Nov 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). To detect bacterial markers of colorectal cancer in African Americans a metabolomic analysis was performed on fecal water extracts. DNA from stool samples of adenoma and healthy subjects and from [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). To detect bacterial markers of colorectal cancer in African Americans a metabolomic analysis was performed on fecal water extracts. DNA from stool samples of adenoma and healthy subjects and from colon cancer and matched normal tissues was analyzed to determine the microbiota composition (using 16S rDNA) and genomic content (metagenomics). Metagenomic functions with discriminative power between healthy and neoplastic specimens were established. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (q-PCR) using primers and probes specific to Streptococcus sp. VT_162 were used to validate this bacterium association with neoplastic transformation in stool samples from two independent cohorts of African Americans and Chinese patients with colorectal lesions. The metabolomic analysis of adenomas revealed low amino acids content. The microbiota in both cancer vs. normal tissues and adenoma vs. normal stool samples were different at the 16S rRNA gene level. Cross-mapping of metagenomic data led to 9 markers with significant discriminative power between normal and diseased specimens. These markers identified with Streptococcus sp. VT_162. Q-PCR data showed a statistically significant presence of this bacterium in advanced adenoma and cancer samples in an independent cohort of CRC patients. We defined metagenomic functions from Streptococcus sp. VT_162 with discriminative power among cancers vs. matched normal and adenomas vs. healthy subjects’ stools. Streptococcus sp. VT_162 specific 16S rDNA was validated in an independent cohort. These findings might facilitate non-invasive screening for colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intestinal Microbes and Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop