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Genes 2018, 9(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9020102

Dietary Fiber Treatment Corrects the Composition of Gut Microbiota, Promotes SCFA Production, and Suppresses Colon Carcinogenesis

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2
Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2009, USA
3
DNA Services Facility, Research Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
4
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
5
Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
6
Department of Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
7
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
8
Department of Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Present address: Department of Food Engineering, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intestinal Microbes and Cancer)
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Abstract

Epidemiological studies propose a protective role for dietary fiber in colon cancer (CRC). One possible mechanism of fiber is its fermentation property in the gut and ability to change microbiota composition and function. Here, we investigate the role of a dietary fiber mixture in polyposis and elucidate potential mechanisms using TS4Cre × cAPCl°x468 mice. Stool microbiota profiling was performed, while functional prediction was done using PICRUSt. Stool short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites were measured. Histone acetylation and expression of SCFA butyrate receptor were assessed. We found that SCFA-producing bacteria were lower in the polyposis mice, suggesting a decline in the fermentation product of dietary fibers with polyposis. Next, a high fiber diet was given to polyposis mice, which significantly increased SCFA-producing bacteria as well as SCFA levels. This was associated with an increase in SCFA butyrate receptor and a significant decrease in polyposis. In conclusion, we found polyposis to be associated with dysbiotic microbiota characterized by a decline in SCFA-producing bacteria, which was targetable by high fiber treatment, leading to an increase in SCFA levels and amelioration of polyposis. The prebiotic activity of fiber, promoting beneficial bacteria, could be the key mechanism for the protective effects of fiber on colon carcinogenesis. SCFA-promoting fermentable fibers are a promising dietary intervention to prevent CRC. View Full-Text
Keywords: CRC; dietary fiber; microbiota; SCFA; butyrate CRC; dietary fiber; microbiota; SCFA; butyrate
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Bishehsari, F.; Engen, P.A.; Preite, N.Z.; Tuncil, Y.E.; Naqib, A.; Shaikh, M.; Rossi, M.; Wilber, S.; Green, S.J.; Hamaker, B.R.; Khazaie, K.; Voigt, R.M.; Forsyth, C.B.; Keshavarzian, A. Dietary Fiber Treatment Corrects the Composition of Gut Microbiota, Promotes SCFA Production, and Suppresses Colon Carcinogenesis. Genes 2018, 9, 102.

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