Special Issue "Genetics of Insecticide Resistance"

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Charles Wondji

Wellcome Trust Senior Fellow/ReaderLiverpool School of Tropical MedicineDepartment of Vector BiologyPembroke Place L3 5QA, Liverpool, UK;
Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), Yaoundé, Cameroon
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Resistance to insecticides is a major challenge to the control of insects, either vectors of diseases, such as Malaria or dengue, or as important crop pests. The elucidation of the genetic basis of insecticide resistance in these insects is a crucial step to design resistance management strategies to prevent potentially devastating public health consequences or severe economic losses. Indeed, without genetic information on insecticide resistance genes and associated molecular markers, it is difficult to track and anticipate the course of resistance or assess its impact on disease transmission and on crop production. The advent of next-generation sequencing coupled with new functional genomics tools have accelerated the study of the genetics basis of resistance in these insects. In this Special Issue, we are calling for reviews or research articles that will cover recent progress made in elucidation of the genetic basis of resistance in these insects.

Prof. Charles Wondji
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Insects
  • Insecticides
  • Insecticide resistance
  • Metabolic resistance
  • Target-site resistance
  • Cuticular resistance
  • Fitness cost
  • Resistance markers

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Overexpression of Two Members of D7 Salivary Genes Family is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles Funestus s.s. but Not in Anopheles Gambiae in Cameroon
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
D7 family proteins are among the most expressed salivary proteins in mosquitoes. They facilitate blood meal intake of the mosquito by scavenging host amines that induce vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and pain. Despite this important role, little information is available on the impact of [...] Read more.
D7 family proteins are among the most expressed salivary proteins in mosquitoes. They facilitate blood meal intake of the mosquito by scavenging host amines that induce vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and pain. Despite this important role, little information is available on the impact of insecticide resistance on the regulation of D7 proteins and consequently on the blood feeding success. In this study, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were performed to investigate how pyrethroid resistance could influence the expression of genes encoding D7 family proteins in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus s.s. mosquitoes from Elon in the Central Cameroon. Out of 328 collected mosquitoes, 256 were identified as An. funestus sl and 64 as An. gambiae sl. Within the An. funestus group, An. funestus s.s. was the most abundant species (95.95%) with An. rivulorum, An. parensis and An. rivulorum-like also detected. All An. gambiae s.l mosquitoes were identified as An. gambiae. High levels of pyrethroid resistance were observed in both An. gambiae and An. funestus mosquitoes. RT-qPCR analyses revealed a significant overexpression of two genes encoding D7 proteins, D7r3 and D7r4, in pyrethroids resistant An. funestus. However, no association was observed between the polymorphism of these genes and their overexpression. In contrast, overall D7 salivary genes were under-expressed in pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae. This study provides preliminary evidences that pyrethroid resistance could influence blood meal intake through over-expression of D7 proteins although future studies will help establishing potential impact on vectorial capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Insecticide Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle Fitness Costs of the Glutathione S-Transferase Epsilon 2 (L119F-GSTe2) Mediated Metabolic Resistance to Insecticides in the Major African Malaria Vector Anopheles Funestus
Genes 2018, 9(12), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9120645
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2071 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Metabolic resistance to insecticides threatens malaria control. However, little is known about its fitness cost in field populations of malaria vectors, thus limiting the design of suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we assessed the association between the glutathione S-transferase GSTe2-mediated metabolic resistance [...] Read more.
Metabolic resistance to insecticides threatens malaria control. However, little is known about its fitness cost in field populations of malaria vectors, thus limiting the design of suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we assessed the association between the glutathione S-transferase GSTe2-mediated metabolic resistance and life-traits of natural populations of Anopheles funestus. A total of 1200 indoor resting blood-fed female An. funestus (F0) were collected in Mibellon, Cameroon (2016/2017), and allowed to lay eggs individually. Genotyping of F1 mosquitoes for the L119F-GSTE2 mutation revealed that L/L119-homozygote susceptible (SS) mosquitoes significantly laid more eggs than heterozygotes L119F-RS (odds ratio (OR) = 2.06; p < 0.0001) and homozygote resistant 119F/F-RR (OR = 2.93; p < 0.0001). L/L119-SS susceptible mosquitoes also showed the higher ability for oviposition than 119F/F-RR resistant (OR = 2.68; p = 0.0002) indicating a reduced fecundity in resistant mosquitoes. Furthermore, L119F-RS larvae developed faster (nine days) than L119F-RR and L119F-SS (11 days) (X2 = 11.052; degree of freedom (df) = 4; p = 0.02) suggesting a heterozygote advantage effect for larval development. Interestingly, L/L119-SS developed faster than 119F/F-RR (OR = 5.3; p < 0.0001) revealing an increased developmental time in resistant mosquitoes. However, genotyping and sequencing revealed that L119F-RR mosquitoes exhibited a higher adult longevity compared to RS (OR > 2.2; p < 0.05) and SS (OR > 2.1; p < 0.05) with an increased frequency of GSTe2-resistant haplotypes in mosquitoes of D30 after adult emergence. Additionally, comparison of the expression of GSTe2 revealed a significantly increased expression from D1-D30 after emergence of adults (Anova test (F) = 8; df= 3; p = 0.008). The negative association between GSTe2 and some life traits of An. funestus could facilitate new resistance management strategies. However, the increased longevity of GSTe2-resistant mosquitoes suggests that an increase in resistance could exacerbate malaria transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Insecticide Resistance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Detection and Monitoring of Insecticide Resistance Mutations in Anopheles gambiae: Individual vs. Pooled Specimens
Genes 2018, 9(10), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9100479
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bioassays and molecular diagnostics are routinely used for the monitoring of malaria vector populations to support insecticide resistance management (IRM), guiding operational decisions on which insecticides ought to be used for effective vector control. Previously developed TaqMan assays were optimised to distinguish the [...] Read more.
Bioassays and molecular diagnostics are routinely used for the monitoring of malaria vector populations to support insecticide resistance management (IRM), guiding operational decisions on which insecticides ought to be used for effective vector control. Previously developed TaqMan assays were optimised to distinguish the wild-type L1014 from the knockdown resistance (kdr) point mutations 1014F and 1014S (triplex reaction), and the N1575 wild-type from the point mutation 1575Y (duplex reaction). Subsequently, artificial pools of Anopheles gambiae (An. gambiae) specimens with known genotypes of L1014F, L1014S, and N1575Y were created, nucleic acids were extracted, and kdr mutations were detected. These data were then used to define a linear regression model that predicts the allelic frequency within a pool of mosquitoes as a function of the measured ΔCt values (Ct mutant − Ct wild type probe). Polynomial regression models showed r2 values of >0.99 (p < 0.05). The method was validated with populations of variable allelic frequencies, and found to be precise (1.66–2.99%), accurate (3.3–5.9%), and able to detect a single heterozygous mosquito mixed with 9 wild type individuals in a pool of 10. Its pilot application in field-caught samples showed minimal differences from individual genotyping (0.36–4.0%). It allowed the first detection of the super-kdr mutation N1575Y in An. gambiae from Mali. Using pools instead of individuals allows for more efficient resistance allele screening, facilitating IRM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Insecticide Resistance)
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