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Fitness Costs of the Glutathione S-Transferase Epsilon 2 (L119F-GSTe2) Mediated Metabolic Resistance to Insecticides in the Major African Malaria Vector Anopheles Funestus
Open AccessArticle

Overexpression of Two Members of D7 Salivary Genes Family is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles Funestus s.s. but Not in Anopheles Gambiae in Cameroon

1
Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), P.O. BOX 13591, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
3
Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon
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Malaria Research Laboratory, Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte Contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC), P.O. Box 288, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala, Cameroon
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030211
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Insecticide Resistance)
D7 family proteins are among the most expressed salivary proteins in mosquitoes. They facilitate blood meal intake of the mosquito by scavenging host amines that induce vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and pain. Despite this important role, little information is available on the impact of insecticide resistance on the regulation of D7 proteins and consequently on the blood feeding success. In this study, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were performed to investigate how pyrethroid resistance could influence the expression of genes encoding D7 family proteins in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus s.s. mosquitoes from Elon in the Central Cameroon. Out of 328 collected mosquitoes, 256 were identified as An. funestus sl and 64 as An. gambiae sl. Within the An. funestus group, An. funestus s.s. was the most abundant species (95.95%) with An. rivulorum, An. parensis and An. rivulorum-like also detected. All An. gambiae s.l mosquitoes were identified as An. gambiae. High levels of pyrethroid resistance were observed in both An. gambiae and An. funestus mosquitoes. RT-qPCR analyses revealed a significant overexpression of two genes encoding D7 proteins, D7r3 and D7r4, in pyrethroids resistant An. funestus. However, no association was observed between the polymorphism of these genes and their overexpression. In contrast, overall D7 salivary genes were under-expressed in pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae. This study provides preliminary evidences that pyrethroid resistance could influence blood meal intake through over-expression of D7 proteins although future studies will help establishing potential impact on vectorial capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: D7 salivary proteins; gene expression; insecticide resistance; pyrethroids; Anopheles gambiae; Anopheles funestus; malaria disease D7 salivary proteins; gene expression; insecticide resistance; pyrethroids; Anopheles gambiae; Anopheles funestus; malaria disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elanga-Ndille, E.; Nouage, L.; Binyang, A.; Assatse, T.; Tene-Fossog, B.; Tchouakui, M.; Nguete Nguiffo, D.; Irving, H.; Ndo, C.; Awono-Ambene, P.; Wondji, C.S. Overexpression of Two Members of D7 Salivary Genes Family is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles Funestus s.s. but Not in Anopheles Gambiae in Cameroon. Genes 2019, 10, 211. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030211

AMA Style

Elanga-Ndille E, Nouage L, Binyang A, Assatse T, Tene-Fossog B, Tchouakui M, Nguete Nguiffo D, Irving H, Ndo C, Awono-Ambene P, Wondji CS. Overexpression of Two Members of D7 Salivary Genes Family is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles Funestus s.s. but Not in Anopheles Gambiae in Cameroon. Genes. 2019; 10(3):211. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030211

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elanga-Ndille, Emmanuel; Nouage, Lynda; Binyang, Achille; Assatse, Tatiane; Tene-Fossog, Billy; Tchouakui, Magellan; Nguete Nguiffo, Daniel; Irving, Helen; Ndo, Cyrille; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Wondji, Charles S. 2019. "Overexpression of Two Members of D7 Salivary Genes Family is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles Funestus s.s. but Not in Anopheles Gambiae in Cameroon" Genes 10, no. 3: 211. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030211

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