Factors Affecting Disease Activity in Children and Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Exploration of Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Elements

A special issue of Gastrointestinal Disorders (ISSN 2624-5647).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 2209

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Paediatrics, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand
Interests: paediatric; inflammatory bowel disease; functional gastrointestinal disorders; coeliac disease; outcome meausures; non-clinical outcomes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For children and adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the overarching aim of management is the induction and maintenance of remission, preferably with mucosal healing.  However, the disease course for each individual with IBD is unique and many different factors may increase clinical disease activity or prove to be beneficial (with improved activity or the prevention of relapse). This Special Issue provides a broad remit to discuss traditional and nuanced studies that explore well-known or little-known factors that could influence disease activity for those with IBD. Papers may report on anti-inflammatory factors that could include novel therapies, exercise, food and nutrition, complementary and alternative medicines, or traditional treatments. Work reporting pro-inflammatory factors may include psychosocial and environmental variables, drug interactions, or comorbid conditions. We welcome original studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, case-reports, and scoping reviews.

Dr. Angharad Hurley (Vernon-Roberts)
Prof. Dr. Andrew Day
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • disease activity
  • flare
  • remission
  • disease exacerbation
  • symptoms
  • clinical inflammation
  • triggers
  • pro-inflammatory
  • anti-inflammatory

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 654 KiB  
Article
Adipokines as Possible Players in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Electrophysiological Evaluation of Their Role in Causing Functional Gastrointestinal Alterations in Murine Tissue
by Rachele Garella, Francesco Palmieri and Roberta Squecco
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(2), 513-525; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6020035 - 7 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a clinical condition of the gastrointestinal tract that has significant incidence in childhood. Major symptoms include abdominal pain, dyspepsia, delayed gastric emptying, anorexia, diarrhea and weight loss. IBD etiopathogenesis is multifactorial, with a proven involvement of cytokines. In [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a clinical condition of the gastrointestinal tract that has significant incidence in childhood. Major symptoms include abdominal pain, dyspepsia, delayed gastric emptying, anorexia, diarrhea and weight loss. IBD etiopathogenesis is multifactorial, with a proven involvement of cytokines. In this regard, cytokines like resistin and adiponectin produced by adipose tissue play a crucial role in inflammation. Particularly, resistin seems related to IBD severity and is considered a promising marker of disease occurrence and progression. Unraveling its mechanism of action and downstream effectors is mandatory when designing novel therapies. This preclinical study aims to further elucidate the action of resistin in causing functional gastrointestinal alterations, comparing it with the well-defined effect of adiponectin. To this end, we carried out electrophysiological analysis on murine gastric fundus. We found that resistin, similarly to adiponectin, increases smooth muscle cell (SMC) capacitance, indicative of cell surface remodeling, which is consistent with relaxation. However, contrary to adiponectin, resistin unalters membrane potential and inward Ca2+ entry and scarcely affects outward current, suggesting its inefficacy in markedly modifying electrical phenomena on the SMC membrane. This outcome, supporting the role of resistin in gastrointestinal distention, as observed in IBD, rules out a strikingly direct effect on SMCs. Full article

Review

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15 pages, 1219 KiB  
Review
Role of IL-33/ST2 Pathway in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview and Future Perspectives
by Walter Giordano, Gabriele Ricciardi, Marco Casciaro, Vincenzo Fiorentino, Cristina Pizzimenti, Anna Viola, Maurizio Martini, Giovanni Tuccari and Antonio Ieni
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(2), 446-460; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6020030 - 10 May 2024
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a heterogenous and complex group of idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract and other extraintestinal systems with rising global incidences. The interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental factors contributes to its pathogenesis. Among the key cytokines [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a heterogenous and complex group of idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract and other extraintestinal systems with rising global incidences. The interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental factors contributes to its pathogenesis. Among the key cytokines implicated in IBD molecular alterations, IL-33 stands out for its multifaceted roles in both pathogenesis and repair mechanisms. IL-33, known for its action in initiating immune responses, is closely associated with Th2 immunity and is considered a potent inflammatory factor with dual functions, acting both as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and a transcriptional regulator. Primarily expressed by non-hematopoietic cells in the gastrointestinal tract, IL-33 interacts with its receptor, ST2, to modulate immune responses. In IBD, dysregulated IL-33 expression exacerbates mucosal inflammation, compromising barrier integrity and promoting tissue damage and fibrosis. Additionally, IL-33 plays a complex role in IBD-related colorectal cancer (CRC), affecting tumor progression and angiogenesis. This review summarizes the multifaceted roles of IL-33 in gastrointestinal health and disease, emphasizing its significance in the pathogenesis of IBD and CRC. Moreover, we thought it of interest to provide new insights into potential therapeutic avenues targeting IL-33 signaling for the management of these debilitating conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 1084 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbiota and Immune System in Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Related Sepsis
by Emilio Jirillo, Skender Topi, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos, Luigi Santacroce, Elona Gaxhja and Marica Colella
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(2), 431-445; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6020029 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
A severe condition of sepsis can be a complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which can occur in premature infants and becomes a medical challenge in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It is a multifactorial intestinal disease (can affect both the small and [...] Read more.
A severe condition of sepsis can be a complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which can occur in premature infants and becomes a medical challenge in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It is a multifactorial intestinal disease (can affect both the small and large intestine) that can lead to ischemia of the intestinal tissues that evolves into acute organ necrosis. One of these factors is that different types of nutrition can influence the onset or the progression of the disease. Cow-milk-based infant formulas have been shown to cause it in premature infants more frequently than human milk. Recently, nutrition has been shown to be beneficial after surgery. Several issues still under study, such as the pathogenesis and the insufficient and often difficult therapeutic approach, as well as the lack of a common and effective prevention strategy, make this disease an enigma in daily clinical practice. Recent studies outlined the emerging role of the host immune system and resident gut microbiota, showing their close connection in NEC pathophysiology. In its initial stages, broad-spectrum antibiotics, bowel rest, and breastfeeding are currently used, as well as probiotics to help the development of the intestinal microbiota and its eubiosis. This paper aims to present the current knowledge and potential fields of research in NEC pathophysiology and therapeutic assessment. Full article
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