Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System

A special issue of Electricity (ISSN 2673-4826).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 22409

Special Issue Editor

Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland
Interests: power system control and stability; integration of renewable energy; inverter dominated power system
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and storage system to power systems plays a significant role in the carbon-neutral society. On the other hand, most RES are uncertain and variable sources. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of demand, this additional variability and uncertainty in supply can pose new challenges for power system operation.

In these circumstances, the integration of a high share of RES requires smart grids, which are intelligent and digitized power systems optimally distributing electricity among prosumers. In this regard, the future smart grids must be secure, reliable, resilient, cost-efficient and market-based while integrating different energy sectors through one market and engaging the customer as central actors.

There are many challenges in achieving a carbon-neutral power system. Topics welcome to this Special Issue include but are not restricted to the following:

  • Power system assessment in the presence of variability and uncertainty
  • Modeling and analysis of power system performance with a high share of RES
  • Effect of recent advances in RES technologies in power system
  • Electricity market design in the presence of a high share of RES
  • The effect of RES in future ancillary service market
  • Energy community and local electricity market
  • Power system digitalization
  • IoT-based monitoring and control of smart power grid environment
  • Data analysis and networking tools in power system operation and design
  • Case studies on recent advances in smart grid and integration of RES
Dr. Poria Astero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electricity is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • integration of renewable energy sources
  • battery storage system
  • smart grids
  • power system control and stability
  • energy community
  • electricity market

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System
Electricity 2023, 4(3), 253-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4030015 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The pursuit of a carbon-neutral society has emerged as a global imperative in the face of escalating environmental challenges [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)

Research

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16 pages, 4957 KiB  
Article
Improved Transient Performance of a DFIG-Based Wind-Power System Using the Combined Control of Active Crowbars
Electricity 2023, 4(4), 320-335; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity4040019 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 640
Abstract
A significant electromotive force is induced in the rotor circuit of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) due to its high vulnerability to grid faults. Therefore, the system performance must be increased with appropriate control actions that can successfully offset such abnormalities in [...] Read more.
A significant electromotive force is induced in the rotor circuit of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) due to its high vulnerability to grid faults. Therefore, the system performance must be increased with appropriate control actions that can successfully offset such abnormalities in order to provide consistent and stable operations during grid disturbances. In this regard, this paper presents a solution based on a combination of an energy storage-based crowbar and a rotor-side crowbar that makes the effective transient current and voltage suppression for wind-driven DFIG possible. The core of the solution is its ability to restrict the transient rotor and stator overcurrents and DC-link overvoltages within their prescribed limits, thereby protecting the DFIG and power converters and improving the system’s ability to ride through faults. Further, the capacity of an energy storage device for transient suppression is estimated. The results confirmed that the proposed approach not only kept the transient rotor and stator currents within ±50% of their respective rated values in severe system faults but also limited the DC-link voltage variations under ±15% of its rated value, achieving transient control objectives precisely and maintaining a stable grid connection during the faults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)
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23 pages, 67137 KiB  
Article
Integration of EV in the Grid Management: The Grid Behavior in Case of Simultaneous EV Charging-Discharging with the PV Solar Energy Injection
Electricity 2022, 3(4), 563-585; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3040028 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3137
Abstract
The actual research in terms of energy focuses drastically on the use of green energy resources. Hydropower systems have been the most known green sources for years. However, the hydropower systems, which are seasonal and most exploited, do not cover the speed of [...] Read more.
The actual research in terms of energy focuses drastically on the use of green energy resources. Hydropower systems have been the most known green sources for years. However, the hydropower systems, which are seasonal and most exploited, do not cover the speed of increasing daily demand. The injection of solar power could be a supporting alternative, but it is only in daylight, weather dependent and intermittent. Therefore, a storage system is required. The batteries are the quick recourse. Not only the energy sector, but also the transport systems are not left behind; they are striving to turn green. Therefore, they are turning to electric vehicles (EVs) and electric moto-bicycles (EMBs). On the other hand, this option tends to be a sharply increasing demand that can be a burden to the grid, i.e., the increase in the EVs and EMBs implies increases in power demand, grid components and pressure on the grid. Fortunately, the EVs use batteries to store energy for their use. Therefore, the EVs are the power storage system, they become part of the power management system and they can save the power surplus. With the injection of PV solar power, there is no need for an extra storage system, as the EVs are charged from the grid and store the solar energy that can be used later after sunset. The bi-directional off-board charger is a solution as it allows the grid to charge the vehicle (G2V) and the vehicle to send power back to grid (V2G). The inclusion of EVs in power management introduces the concept of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) when one EV can charge another, and the vehicle-to-load (V2X) where the EV can supply power to EMBs or any load. The V2G, G2V, V2X, the inclusion on solar energy to the grid and the behavior of the grid in that scenario will be illustrated in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)
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18 pages, 7695 KiB  
Article
Intrinsic Characteristics of Forward Simulation Modeling Electric Vehicle for Energy Analysis
Electricity 2022, 3(2), 202-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3020012 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
The forward method for modeling electric vehicles is one of the most suitable for estimating energy consumption in different imposed driving cycles. However, a detailed description of the methodology used for the development of electric vehicle models is necessary and is scarce in [...] Read more.
The forward method for modeling electric vehicles is one of the most suitable for estimating energy consumption in different imposed driving cycles. However, a detailed description of the methodology used for the development of electric vehicle models is necessary and is scarce in the current literature. To fill this gap, this study focuses on highlighting the intrinsic characteristics through a theoretical study with a mathematical model, complemented by demonstrative simulations in Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the forward method can be estimated more accurately based on the energy consumption of the electric vehicle. Moreover, this paper aims to be explicitly descriptive for the development of more complex electric vehicle models to incorporate real driving cycles, being able to size the drivetrain of the vehicle itself or develop ecological routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)
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17 pages, 2829 KiB  
Article
Modelling of the Ability of a Mixed Renewable Generation Electricity System with Storage to Meet Consumer Demand
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 16-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010002 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3293
Abstract
In this paper, we explore how effectively renewable generation can be used to meet a country’s electricity demands. We consider a range of different generation mixes and capacities, as well as the use of energy storage. First, we introduce a new open-source model [...] Read more.
In this paper, we explore how effectively renewable generation can be used to meet a country’s electricity demands. We consider a range of different generation mixes and capacities, as well as the use of energy storage. First, we introduce a new open-source model that uses hourly wind speed and solar irradiance data to estimate the output of a renewable electricity generator at a specific location. Then, we construct a case study of the Great Britain (GB) electricity system as an example using historic hourly demand and weather data. Three specific sources of renewable generation are considered: offshore wind, onshore wind, and solar PV. Li-ion batteries are considered as the form of electricity storage. We demonstrate that the ability of a renewables-based electricity system to meet expected demand profiles can be increased by optimising the ratio of onshore wind, offshore wind and solar PV. Additionally, we show how including Li-ion battery storage can reduce overall generation needs, therefore lowering system costs. For the GB system, we explore how the residual load that would need to be met with other forms of flexibility, such as dispatchable generation sources or demand-side response, varies for different ratios of renewable generation and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)
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16 pages, 4088 KiB  
Article
Repowering Feasibility Study of a Current Hybrid Renewable System. Case Study, Galapagos Islands
Electricity 2021, 2(4), 487-502; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2040029 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Renewable sources on islands seem to be the most attractive option to decarbonize and lower the price of electricity; currently, most islands do so by replacing their diesel generators with wind or solar sources, along with energy storage. The Galapagos Islands are no [...] Read more.
Renewable sources on islands seem to be the most attractive option to decarbonize and lower the price of electricity; currently, most islands do so by replacing their diesel generators with wind or solar sources, along with energy storage. The Galapagos Islands are no exception. This study presents a techno-economic analysis of hybrid renewable systems in the Galapagos Islands, considering the repowering of its renewable sources and reduction in the penetration of diesel generators. This study uses EnergyPlan software, where the best option is chosen based on technical, economic, and environmental indicators. Finally, several sensitivity analyses are done. The results show that by increasing the capacity of current wind and photovoltaic systems, the total annual cost reduces by 20% and 10.31%, respectively; this is a specific result of this study. Moreover, there is a reduction in CO2 emissions produced by diesel generators, up to 38.96%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)
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Review

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33 pages, 2380 KiB  
Review
Analytical Methods of Voltage Stability in Renewable Dominated Power Systems: A Review
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 75-107; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010006 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7715
Abstract
The ongoing development of renewable energy and microgrid technologies has gradually transformed the conventional energy infrastructure and upgraded it into a modernized system with more distributed generation and localized energy storage options. Compared with power grids utilizing synchronous generation, inverter-based networks cannot physically [...] Read more.
The ongoing development of renewable energy and microgrid technologies has gradually transformed the conventional energy infrastructure and upgraded it into a modernized system with more distributed generation and localized energy storage options. Compared with power grids utilizing synchronous generation, inverter-based networks cannot physically provide large amounts of inertia, which means that more advanced and extensive studies regarding stability considerations are required for such systems. Therefore, appropriate analytical methods are needed for the voltage stability analysis of renewable-dominated power systems, which incorporate a large number of inverters and distributed energy sources. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of voltage stability analyses of power systems with high levels of renewable energy penetration. A series of generalized evaluation schemes and improvement methods relating to the voltage stability of power systems integrated with various distributed energy resources are discussed. The existing voltage stability analysis methods and corresponding simulation verification models for microgrids are also reviewed in a systematic manner. The traditional and improved voltage stability analysis methods are reviewed according to the microgrid operation mode, the types of distributed generators, and the microgrid configurations. Moreover, the voltage stability indices, which play a crucial role in voltage stability assessments, are critically evaluated in terms of the applicable conditions. The associated modeling and simulation techniques are also presented and discussed. This contribution presents guidelines for voltage stability analysis and instability mitigation methods for modern renewable-rich power systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)
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