Special Issue "Organic/Metal Oxide Thin Films for Optoelectronic/Photovoltaic and Sensing Applications"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Energy Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 15064

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mir Waqas Alam
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, Ahsaa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Interests: organic materials; inorganic materials; thin films; optoelectronic devices; gas sensors; photovoltaic devices; energy applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Sajid Ali Ansari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Hofuf, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Interests: electrochemical supercapacitors; photocatalysis; energy storage; energy materials; li-ion battery; fuel cells
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Faheem Ahmed
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box-400, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Interests: nanostructures; energy; sensing; photocatalysis; batteries; supercapacitors; solar cells; nanomedicines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thin films based on metal oxides and organic materials are among the key materials used in photovoltaic/optoelectronic and sensing devices. Thin films based on these materials are often used in devices such as thin-film transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photoconductors, light crystal displays, and sensors. Due to the large-scale effort from the engineering and science community, progress in these devices has rapidly increased over the past few decades. These devices are generally composed of single or multiple thin layers; therefore, charge transfer is considered to be a serious challenge. Several interfaces of engineering methods have been used to improve the performance of these devices. With the passage of time, different materials/fabrication processes and different techniques have been explored, and research efforts  for innovations and performance improvement are continuing. Considering the importance of organic and inorganic thin films and their applications, this Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive collection of research from across the world that can be used for the development of advanced devices based on organic/metal oxide thin films.

Dr. Mir Waqas Alam
Dr. Sajid Ali Ansari
Dr. Faheem Ahmed
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • organic materials
  • inorganic metal oxides
  • thin films
  • thin film transistors
  • energy devices
  • photovoltaics
  • sensors

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue “Organic/Metal Oxide Thin Films for Optoelectronic/Photovoltaic and Sensing Applications”
Crystals 2023, 13(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13020173 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The Special Issue entitled “Organic/Metal Oxide Thin Films for Optoelectronic/Photovoltaic and Sensing Applications” is comprised of thirteen original research articles devoted to the development and designing of new and novel organic/metal oxide thin film-based nanomaterials (NMs) for electrochemical and optoelectronic applications [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Perovskite Photo-Sensors with Solution-Processed TiO2 under Low Temperature Process and Ultra-Thin Polyethylenimine Ethoxylated as Electron Injection Layer
Crystals 2022, 12(7), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12070914 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 704
Abstract
A perovskite photo-sensor is promising for a lightweight, thin, flexible, easy-to-coat fabrication process, and a higher incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency. We have investigated perovskite photo-sensors with a solution-processed compact TiO2 under a low-temperature process and an ultra-thin polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) as an [...] Read more.
A perovskite photo-sensor is promising for a lightweight, thin, flexible, easy-to-coat fabrication process, and a higher incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency. We have investigated perovskite photo-sensors with a solution-processed compact TiO2 under a low-temperature process and an ultra-thin polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) as an electron injection layer. The TiO2 film is grown from an aqueous solution of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) at 70 °C by a chemical bath deposition method. For an alternative process, the ultra-thin PEIE is spin coated on the TiO2 film. Then, the perovskite layer is deposited on the substrate by the one- or two-step methods in the glovebox. Next, a hole transport layer of 2,2,7,7-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9, 9-spiro-bifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) solution is spin coated. The fabricated device structure is a photodiode structure of FTO/TiO2/(without or with) PEIE/(one- or two-step) perovskite layer/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. For the sensing characteristics, a ratio of photo-to-dark-current density was 2.88 × 104 for the device with PEIE layer. In addition, a power-law relationship is discussed. Full article
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Article
Enhanced Electrodes for Supercapacitor Applications Prepared by Hydrothermal-Assisted Nano Sheet-Shaped MgCo2O4@ZnS
Crystals 2022, 12(6), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12060822 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
In this paper, we report on nanodisc-shaped MgCo2O4 wrapped with ZnS, achieved using the sol–gel-assisted hydrothermal method. This enhances the electrochemical performance, with the electrode delivering superior supercapacitive performance compared to MgCo2O4. Moreover, the nanodisc provides [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report on nanodisc-shaped MgCo2O4 wrapped with ZnS, achieved using the sol–gel-assisted hydrothermal method. This enhances the electrochemical performance, with the electrode delivering superior supercapacitive performance compared to MgCo2O4. Moreover, the nanodisc provides more active sites and allows smooth charge transfer during faradaic reactions. The nanodisc-shaped MgCo2O4 with ZnS delivers a capacitance of approximately 910 F/g at 1 A/g. The fabricated asymmetric capacitor is composed of MgCo2O4@ZnS and activated carbon (AC). The nanodisc-shaped MgCo2O4@ZnS provides more active sites and allows the smooth transport of electrons during long-term cycling. In addition, the electrode side reactions and electrolyte decomposition are significantly reduced due to the ZnS coating on the surface of the MgCo2O4, allowing this asymmetric capacitor to deliver an energy density of 43 Wh·kg−1 at 1454 W·kg−1. The performance of the asymmetric capacitor exhibits enhanced supercapacitive performance and opens a new way to investigate asymmetric supercapacitor devices. Full article
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Article
Enhanced Li+ Ionic Conduction and Relaxation Properties of Li5+2xLa3Ta2-xGaxO12 Garnets
Crystals 2022, 12(6), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12060770 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
In the current work, we studied the effect of Ga+3 substitutions on the Ta+5 sites in Li5+2xLa3Ta2-xGaxO12 (LLT-Ga) lithium conducting garnets (with x = 0.1–0.5) in order to enhance the ionic conductivity [...] Read more.
In the current work, we studied the effect of Ga+3 substitutions on the Ta+5 sites in Li5+2xLa3Ta2-xGaxO12 (LLT-Ga) lithium conducting garnets (with x = 0.1–0.5) in order to enhance the ionic conductivity of these materials. The current materials are prepared by solid state reaction and their electrical properties are studied by impedance spectroscopy measurements. XRD data showed that cubic garnet phases are obtained for LLT-Ga garnets. The ionic conductivity increased by one order of magnitude for x = 0.3 composition with a value of ~4 × 10−5 S/cm compared to that of Li5La3Ta2O12 material. Moreover, the hopping frequency and the concentration of mobile Li+ ions were estimated from analysis of the conductivity spectra, and it was found that both the concentration and mobility of Li+ ions increased with increasing Ga+3 content in the materials. The dielectric and relaxation properties were studied in the dielectric permittivity and electric modulus formalisms. The current materials exhibited giant values of the dielectric constant of ε′ ~ 6500, originating from internal effects in the materials. Full article
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Article
Wrinkle-Shaped Nickel Sulfide Grown on Three-Dimensional Nickel Foam: A Binder-Free Electrode Designed for High-Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitor Applications
Crystals 2022, 12(6), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12060757 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Recently, three-dimensional nickel foam (3D-Nf) has been increasingly studied; however, further modifications in nanoscale surface modification are necessary for particular applications. In this work, three-dimensional hierarchically porous nanogranular NiS (NiS-3D-Nf) and wrinkle-shaped NiS (w-NiS-3D-Nf) structures were fabricated directly on nickel foam by a [...] Read more.
Recently, three-dimensional nickel foam (3D-Nf) has been increasingly studied; however, further modifications in nanoscale surface modification are necessary for particular applications. In this work, three-dimensional hierarchically porous nanogranular NiS (NiS-3D-Nf) and wrinkle-shaped NiS (w-NiS-3D-Nf) structures were fabricated directly on nickel foam by a simple one-step solvothermal process using two different solvents. Several characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction pattern, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, were used to characterize the samples’ properties. To prove their applicability, supercapacitor electrodes were tested directly in a three-electrode assembly cell. The resulting w-NiS-3D-Nf electrodes exhibited greater capacitive activity than the NiS-3D-Nf electrodes. The optimized w-NiS-3D-Nf electrodes delivered an excellent specific capacitance of 770 Fg−1, at a current density of 1 Ag−1, compared with the NiS-3D-Nf electrodes (162.0 Fg−1 @ 1 Ag−1), with a cyclic stability of over 92.67% capacitance retention after 2200 cycles. The resultant unique structure with integrated hierarchical three-dimensional configuration can not only enhance abundant accessible surface areas but also produce strong adhesion to the 3D-Nf, facilitating the fast transportation of ions and electrons for the electrochemical reaction via the conductive 3D-Nf. This set of results suggests that the modification of 3D-Nf surfaces with a suitable solvent has highly significant effects on morphology, and ultimately, electrochemical performance. Additionally, the current preparation approach is simple and worthwhile, and thus offers great potential for supercapacitor applications. Full article
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Article
Effect of Mn Concentration on the Structural, Ferroelectric, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of BiFeO3 Nanoparticles
Crystals 2022, 12(5), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12050704 - 15 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
In the present work, Bi1.05Fe1−xMnxO3, (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10) NPs were synthesized successfully using the sol-gel technique followed by annealing at 550 °C. The synthesized NPs were investigated for their structural, [...] Read more.
In the present work, Bi1.05Fe1−xMnxO3, (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10) NPs were synthesized successfully using the sol-gel technique followed by annealing at 550 °C. The synthesized NPs were investigated for their structural, ferroelectric, optical, and magnetic properties through X-ray diffraction, P-E (polarization vs. electric field) hysteresis loops, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and DC-magnetization. The analysis of XRD patterns revealed that the crystallite sizes, lattice parameters, and strain were found to be reduced with an increase in Mn concentration. The ferroelectric properties were studied from the P-E hysteresis loops, which revealed the maximum remnant polarization obtained for Bi1.05Fe0.95Mn0.05O3 NPs. The UV-vis and PL spectra revealed excellent optical properties indicating a reduction (1.91–1.36 eV) in the bandgap with an increase in Mn concentration. The magnetic properties were investigated through the magnetic field (H) dependent magnetization (M) hysteresis loops. The saturation magnetization was found to be maximum (~1.4 emu/g) for Bi1.05Fe0.90Mn0.10O3 NPs. The MH hysteresis loops narrow down near H = 0 forming a wasp waist shape that is maximum for Bi1.05Fe0.90Mn0.10O3 NPs and may be associated with the presence of the canted spins. Full article
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Article
Flexural Edge Waves in a Thick Piezoelectric Film Resting on a Winkler Foundation
Crystals 2022, 12(5), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12050640 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the analysis of bending edge waves travelling in a thick Kirchhoff-type piezoelectric film resting on a Winkler–Fuss foundation. The electromechanical coupling is accounted for in defining flexural rigidities to embrace piezoelectric and dielectric material constants. Dynamics is solved [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with the analysis of bending edge waves travelling in a thick Kirchhoff-type piezoelectric film resting on a Winkler–Fuss foundation. The electromechanical coupling is accounted for in defining flexural rigidities to embrace piezoelectric and dielectric material constants. Dynamics is solved analytically and demonstrated numerically by assuming harmonic wave propagation. It is observed that an increase of the voltage leads to a decrease of the critical velocity, while an increase of the Winkler’s constant leads to an increase of the critical velocity. Full article
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Article
The Structure, Magnetic, and Gas Sensing Characteristics of W-Substituted Co-Ferrite Nanoparticles
Crystals 2022, 12(3), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12030393 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Ferrites have been broadly investigated as gas sensors. The present article reports on the synthesis of Co-ferrite doped with W ions and their gas sensing abilities. A series of single phase CoFe2O4 powder with different W-doping (0.0 ≤ x ≤ [...] Read more.
Ferrites have been broadly investigated as gas sensors. The present article reports on the synthesis of Co-ferrite doped with W ions and their gas sensing abilities. A series of single phase CoFe2O4 powder with different W-doping (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) was synthesized using sol-gel synthesis. A variation in the saturation magnetization (Ms) and the lattice dimension with W(VI) substitution was associated with a change in the distribution of Fe(III) ions between tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Introducing W(VI) ions into the spinel lattice induced the rearrangement of Fe(III) ions. The total Ms increased with W-doping up to x = 0.05 (Ms = 50.1 Am2/kg) and it dramatically decreased to 34.6 Am2/kg with x = 0.15 of doping. However, the lattice parameter increased with increasing doping levels. Different W-doped CoFe2O4 were examined for a gas sensing response in the temperature range of 200–450 °C. Comparing the sensor responses to various reducing gases, the material’s response was shown to be sensitive and selective for acetone. The addition of W (0.15%) had a significant impact on the response and on the operating temperature of the sensor material, indicating that it might be used as an acetone sensor. Full article
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Article
Silver Nanoparticle Decorated on Reduced Graphene Oxide-Wrapped Manganese Oxide Nanorods as Electrode Materials for High-Performance Electrochemical Devices
Crystals 2022, 12(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12030389 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
In this work, silver nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wrapped manganese oxide nanorods ([email protected]2) were synthesized for an active electrode material. MnO2 nanorods were synthesized via a hydrothermal route, and their coating with GO and subsequent reduction at [...] Read more.
In this work, silver nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wrapped manganese oxide nanorods ([email protected]2) were synthesized for an active electrode material. MnO2 nanorods were synthesized via a hydrothermal route, and their coating with GO and subsequent reduction at a higher temperature resulted in [email protected]2. A further addition of Ag on [email protected]2 was performed by dispersing [email protected]2 in AgNO3 solution and its subsequent reduction by NaBH4. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed peaks corresponding to MnO2 and Ag, and the absence of a peak at 2θ = 26° confirmed a few layered coatings of rGO and the absence of any graphitic impurities. Morphological analysis showed Ag nanoparticles anchored on rGO coated MnO2 nanorods. Apart from this, all other characterization techniques also confirmed the successful fabrication of [email protected]2. The electrochemical performance examined by cyclic voltammetry and the galvanic charge–discharge technique showed that [email protected]2 has a superior capacitive value (675 Fg−1) as compared to the specific capacitance value of [email protected]2 (306.25 Fg−1) and MnO2 (293.75 Fg−1). Furthermore, the electrode based on [email protected]2 nanocomposite showed an excellent capacity retention of 95% after 3000 cycles. The above results showed that [email protected]2 nanocomposites can be considered an active electrode material for future applications in electrochemical devices. Full article
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Article
Preparation and Characterization of Cu and Al Doped ZnO Thin Films for Solar Cell Applications
Crystals 2022, 12(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12020128 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The Al- and Cu-doped ZnO nanostructured films in this study were deposited using a sputtering technique. Investigations based on X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hall effect measurements, and optical transmission spectroscopy was performed to analyze the structural, electrical, and optical [...] Read more.
The Al- and Cu-doped ZnO nanostructured films in this study were deposited using a sputtering technique. Investigations based on X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hall effect measurements, and optical transmission spectroscopy was performed to analyze the structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of the prepared Al–ZnO and Cu–ZnO nanostructured films. The analyses show that doping results in enhanced conductivity as well as improved mobility in Al–ZnO and Cu–ZnO films in comparison to pure ZnO films. The Al- and Cu-doped ZnO films exhibited low resistivity (2.9 × 10−4 Ω cm for Al–ZnO and 1.7 × 10−4 Ω cm for Cu–ZnO) along with an average transmittance of around 80% in the visible spectrum. Moreover, the optical bandgaps of undoped ZnO, Al–ZnO, and Cu–ZnO nanostructures were observed as 3.3, 3.28, and 3.24 eV, respectively. Finally, solar cells were assembled by employing ZnO nanostructured thin films as photoelectrodes, resulting in efficiencies of 0.492% and 0.559% for Al–ZnO- and Cu–ZnO-based solar cells, respectively. Full article
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Article
Development of Binder Free Interconnected 3D Flower of NiZn2O4 as an Advanced Electrode Materials for Supercapacitor Applications
Crystals 2022, 12(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12010014 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
The design and development of electrode materials for energy-storage applications is an area of prime focus around the globe because of the shortage of natural resources. In this study, we developed a method for preparing a novel three-dimensional binder-free pseudocapacitive NiZn2O [...] Read more.
The design and development of electrode materials for energy-storage applications is an area of prime focus around the globe because of the shortage of natural resources. In this study, we developed a method for preparing a novel three-dimensional binder-free pseudocapacitive NiZn2O4 active material, which was grown directly over nickel foam (NiZn2O4@3D-NF), using a simple one-step hydrothermal process. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were employed to evaluate the pseudocapacitive performance of the NiZn2O4 active material in a three-electrode assembly cell. The prepared NiZn2O4@3D-NF electrode exhibited an excellent specific capacitance, of 1706.25 F/g, compared to that of the [email protected] (1050 F/g) electrode because it has the bimetallic characteristics of both zinc and nickel. The NiZn2O4@3D-NF electrode showed better cyclic stability (87.5% retention) compared to the [email protected] electrode (80% retention) after 5000 cycles at a fixed current density, which also supports the durability of the NiZn2O4@3D-NF electrode. The characteristics of NiZn2O4@3D-NF include corrosion resistance, high conductivity, an abundance of active sites for electrochemical reaction, a high surface area, and synergism between the bimetallic oxides, which make it a suitable candidate for potential application in the field of energy storage. Full article
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Article
Green Synthesis of Ni-Cu-Zn Based Nanosized Metal Oxides for Photocatalytic and Sensor Applications
Crystals 2021, 11(12), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11121467 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
The preparation, characterization, and application of Nickel oxide (NiO)–Copper oxide (CuO)–Zinc oxide (ZnO) transition nanometal oxides have significantly enhanced their tunable properties for superior multifunctional performances compared with well-known metal oxides. NiO–CuO–ZnO nano transition metal oxides were synthesized by a simple eco-friendly solution [...] Read more.
The preparation, characterization, and application of Nickel oxide (NiO)–Copper oxide (CuO)–Zinc oxide (ZnO) transition nanometal oxides have significantly enhanced their tunable properties for superior multifunctional performances compared with well-known metal oxides. NiO–CuO–ZnO nano transition metal oxides were synthesized by a simple eco-friendly solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed distinct phases such as monoclinic, cubic, and hexagonal wurtzite for CuO, NiO, and ZnO, respectively, with NiO having the highest composition. The particle sizes were found to be in the range between 25 and 60 nm, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The energy bandgap values were found to be 1.63, 3.4, and 4.2 eV for CuO, ZnO, and NiO, respectively. All metal oxides exhibited a moderate degradation efficiency for AR88 dye. The results of ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra helped identify the bandgap of metal oxides and a suitable wavelength for photocatalytic irradiation. Finally, we concluded that the electrochemical studies revealed that the synthesized materials are well suitable for sensor applications. Full article
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Article
Investigation of TiO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method for Effectual Photodegradation, Oxidation and Reduction Reaction
Crystals 2021, 11(12), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11121456 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Metal oxide titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by using a simple and economical sol-gel method. The prepared nanoparticles were used to evaluate methylene blue dye degradation and as catalysts in the oxidation of benzaldehyde. The crystallite size of the titanium [...] Read more.
Metal oxide titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by using a simple and economical sol-gel method. The prepared nanoparticles were used to evaluate methylene blue dye degradation and as catalysts in the oxidation of benzaldehyde. The crystallite size of the titanium dioxide nanoparticle was 18.3 nm, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The spherical morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the elemental composition of the nanoparticle was found by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. The anatase form of the nanoparticle was confirmed by the bandgap 3.2 eV, which was measured using UV–DRS analysis. The bond between metal and oxygen was confirmed by the peaks at 485 and 606 cm–1 analyzed by Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR). The efficiency of the catalyst in dye degradation was 60.08, 68.38, and 80.89% with respect to 50, 75, and 100 mg catalyst weight. The yield % of benzoic acid was 94%, and the reduction efficiency against 4-nitrophenol was 98.44%. Full article
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Article
Study and Analysis of Simple and Precise of Contact Resistance Single-Transistor Extracting Method for Accurate Analytical Modeling of OTFTs Current-Voltage Characteristics: Application to Different Organic Semiconductors
Crystals 2021, 11(12), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11121448 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Contact resistance (Rc) characterizes the interface of source-drain electrodes/organic semiconductors and controls the injection efficiency of carriers in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This research paper presents and assesses two methods for extracting the value of the contact resistance from the [...] Read more.
Contact resistance (Rc) characterizes the interface of source-drain electrodes/organic semiconductors and controls the injection efficiency of carriers in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This research paper presents and assesses two methods for extracting the value of the contact resistance from the measured current-voltage characteristics of OTFTs made with various p-type organic semiconductors as active layers. These two methods are the transition voltage method (TVM) and the transfer line method (TLM). The obtained Rc values by the TVM method are in fair agreement with those obtained by TLM, with a maximum percentage of difference around 10%, demonstrating the accuracy of the used transition-voltage method. An analytical model was employed to calculate output characteristics in the linear regime of OTFTs made with various organic semiconductors using the contact resistance values obtained by the transition voltage method. The calculated results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones of each fabricated device, which affirms the ability of the used model to characterize the charge transport correctly in these types of devices. It can be concluded that the used TVM method is not only an easy and practical method, but also a precise way for extracting Rc in OTFTs produced using different organic semiconductor materials. Full article
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