Food Microbiology: Technologies and Processes, Microbiology Analysis Methods, and Antimicrobials

A special issue of Challenges (ISSN 2078-1547).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2016) | Viewed by 35158

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
National Research Council of Italy, AgroFood Department, Institute of Sciences of Food Productions, Lecce, Italy
Interests: biotechnologies for the quality and safety of food productions; microbiology and quality of food productions
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few years, microbiology has made great advancements through the next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods. Strains have been sequenced, making it possible to: compare phylogenetically the food associated strains; identifying Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and relating their selection with the food environment and the selective pressure; and identifying CRISPR-Cas variable regions as an immune system that maintain trace of plasmids and bacteriophage infections. Bacterial communities have been studied with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, and microbiomes have been analyzed in foods, environment, as well as in the gut. Novel food process technologies (microwave, Radio frequency energy) can thermally process food products by exploiting dielectric properties and water activity without using overly high temperatures. Food additives, such as bacteriocins, lactic and sorbic acid, and food preserving agents, are sought to ensure low costs and a high quality and safety of products. Novel phytochemicals may be found with good antibacterial activity.

We will consider any submissions associated with novel and advanced techniques and methodologies dealing with the microbiology of foods, and the processes relying on microorganisms (desired and unwanted, spoiling or toxin-producing, and delivering enzymes affecting the quality of productions), industrial challenges (fungal and bacterial containment), and solutions by food technologists in order to assure a production line. In the coming years, with a growing population, the food security challenge poses the problem of delivering enough commodities and foods, from raw materials to processed foods, and their stockage, and novel packaging solutions with shelf life extensions.


Dr. Palmiro Poltronieri
Guest Editor

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Keywords


  • Microbiological Analysis Methods
  • Metagenomics and Next Generation sequencing
  • Typing methods: AFLP, DGGE-PCR
  • CRISPR-Cas systems and bacteriophage immunity
  • Genotyping
  • microbial community and interactions
  • Starter strains
  • Non Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria
  • Phenotyping
  • Metabolite analysis
  • Food processing
  • Technologies for food Preservation and shelf-life extension
  • Food spoilage
  • Bactericins
  • bacteriostatic compounds and phytochemicals

Published Papers (2 papers)

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2253 KiB  
Review
Challenges in Specialty Coffee Processing and Quality Assurance
by Palmiro Poltronieri and Franca Rossi
Challenges 2016, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/challe7020019 - 24 Oct 2016
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 28633
Abstract
Coffee is an important crop that assures a sustainable economy to farmers in tropical regions. A dramatic concern for coffee production is currently represented by climate change, which threatens the survival of Coffea arabica cultivation worldwide and imposes modifications of the agronomic practices [...] Read more.
Coffee is an important crop that assures a sustainable economy to farmers in tropical regions. A dramatic concern for coffee production is currently represented by climate change, which threatens the survival of Coffea arabica cultivation worldwide and imposes modifications of the agronomic practices to prevent this risk. The quality of coffee beans depends on optimized protocols of cultivation, ripe berries collection, and removal of the outer fruit layers by dry or wet processes and moisture reduction. Storage and shipment represent two steps where bean quality needs to be preserved by preventing fungal contamination that may impact the final product and form mycotoxins, mainly ochratoxin A. In this review, we describe the challenges faced by the coffee industry to guarantee quality from production to roasting and brewing. An overview of novel technologies, such as the application of starter cultures in fermentation and the exploitation of industrial enzymes in accelerating the process of flavour development in coffee beans, is given. Moreover, the results of studies on microbial populations on coffee and the differences found in fungi, yeasts and bacteria composition among the investigations, are summarized. In particular, this review describes new attempts to contain the development of mycotoxigenic fungi, through the application of antagonistic microorganisms such as S. cerevisiae. The new wave of specialty coffees, i.e., those with a cupping score higher than 85/100, is also presented. It is shown how, through careful coffee production methods and controlled fermentation processes, coffee producers may increase their income by assuring high standards of quality and high added value for the coffee experience sector. Full article
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1842 KiB  
Brief Report
Use of Bacteriocinogenic Cultures without Inhibiting Cheese Associated Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacteria; A Trial with Lactobacillus plantarum
by Franca Rossi and Gianluca Veneri
Challenges 2016, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/challe7010004 - 14 Feb 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4927
Abstract
Bacteriocinogenic cultures can represent a natural way to increase the safety of cheeses made from raw milk, in which a relevant role in ripening and flavor formation is exerted by the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). Since the latter can be inhibited by [...] Read more.
Bacteriocinogenic cultures can represent a natural way to increase the safety of cheeses made from raw milk, in which a relevant role in ripening and flavor formation is exerted by the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). Since the latter can be inhibited by bacteriocin producers, this study evaluated to which extent a nisinogenic culture inoculated at low initial levels can affect the growth rate and peptide degradation activity of the nisin-sensitive cheese isolate Lactobacillus plantarum LZ by comparison with its isogenic variant, L. plantarum LZNI, with increased immunity to nisin. A growth delay of the nisin sensitive strain was observed only when its initial number was 100-fold lower than the nisin producer and nisin was added as an inducer of its own production. In this case, the amount of free α-amino groups was significantly different between cultures of L. plantarum LZ and LZNI only at Day 1. Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) highlighted a few differences between the peptide profiles of co-cultures L. plantarum LZ and LZNI. However, results showed that the bacteriocin producer did not dramatically influence the behavior of the sensitive NSLAB and that the evaluation of the effects on microbial contaminants in cheese is worthwhile. Full article
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