Special Issue "Surface Chemistry in Catalysis"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. hab. B. Lesiak-Orłowska
Website
Guest Editor
Dynamics of Nanocrystal Structure Induced by Surface Chemistry
Department of Catalysis on Metals
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: electron spectroscopic methods; surface analyses; surfaces and interfaces; carbon nanomaterials; biomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue is dedicated to aspects of chemical and physical processes at surfaces and interfaces, preferably in significant and novel reactions of heterogeneous catalysis. It is expected to cover a wide range of fundamental experimental specific surface analytical techniques and theoretical modeling studies oriented towards academic and industrial readers. The topics are supposed to provide an insight on atomic and molecular level into catalytic processes by combining the relation between the synthesized catalyst, adsorption and desorption processes, surface and interface characteristics, catalytic performance, and kinetics and mechanisms. 

The following topics of surface sciences are included:

  • Catalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis;
  • Model and industrial conditions reactions;
  • Nanoscale surface engineering, modification, and functionalization;
  • Surface reactivity;
  • Interactions of surfaces with polymers, biomaterials;
  • Catalytic reactions of significant impact in addressing current challenges and societal demands.

Dr. hab. B. Lesiak-Orłowska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Simple Angle-Resolved Thermal Molecular Beam Reactor: Applied to CO Oxidation on Pt{110}
Catalysts 2020, 10(11), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111229 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
We developed a simple form of thermal molecular beam catalytic reactor system which is capable of measuring sticking probabilities and reaction probabilities, together with angle-resolved scattering of molecules and products during catalytic reactions at the surface. This includes very fast determination of the [...] Read more.
We developed a simple form of thermal molecular beam catalytic reactor system which is capable of measuring sticking probabilities and reaction probabilities, together with angle-resolved scattering of molecules and products during catalytic reactions at the surface. This includes very fast determination of the angle dependence of the reaction product flux at steady-state. It was employed to determine the oxidation of CO on Pt{110}-(1 × 2), including individual molecular sticking and scattering. The initial sticking probability of oxygen on Pt{110} shows a small variation between 140 and 750 K surface temperature, from 0.45 to 0.28. The saturation uptake drops from 1.5 ± 0.2 ML at 140 K to 0.6 ML at 300 K and to 0.23 ± 0.02 ML at 750 K. The initial sticking probability of CO at 300 K is 0.80 and decreases to 0.62 at 470 K. Beyond that temperature, it descends steeply down to near zero at 570 K, due to the high desorption rate of CO at that temperature. Kisliuk precursor mobility parameters K were calculated from shape of the sticking curves. For 300 K, a value of 0.11 ± 0.01 was found, which increases to 0.76 ± 0.01 at 470 K, indicating a change from considerable mobility in the precursor state, to more limited mobility before desorption at high temperature. In temperature-programmed CO-O2 reaction experiments, CO2 production was observed to initiate in the temperature region 460–510 K. Using isothermal angle-resolved experiments, the CO2 flux was determined in the [11¯0] plane at temperatures of 470–620 K. Two sharp scattering lobes at positions of ±16° off the surface normal were found, with a high cosine power angle dependence, which were attributed to desorption from the {111}-like microfacets of the 1 × 2 reconstructed surface, with products evolving over a high barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry in Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Poisoning of Ammonia Synthesis Catalyst Considering Off-Design Feed Compositions
Catalysts 2020, 10(11), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111225 - 22 Oct 2020
Abstract
Activity of ammonia synthesis catalyst in the Haber-Bosch process is studied for the case of feeding the process with intermittent and impurity containing hydrogen stream from water electrolysis. Hydrogen deficiency due to low availability of renewable energy is offset by increased flow rate [...] Read more.
Activity of ammonia synthesis catalyst in the Haber-Bosch process is studied for the case of feeding the process with intermittent and impurity containing hydrogen stream from water electrolysis. Hydrogen deficiency due to low availability of renewable energy is offset by increased flow rate of nitrogen, argon, or ammonia, leading to off-design operation of the Haber-Bosch process. Catalyst poisoning by ppm levels of water and oxygen is considered as the main deactivation mechanism and is evaluated with a microkinetic model. Simulation results show that catalyst activity changes considerably with feed gas composition, even at exceptionally low water contents below 10ppm. A decreased hydrogen content always leads to lower poisoning of the catalyst. It is shown that ammonia offers less flexibility to the operation of Haber-Bosch process under fluctuating hydrogen production compared to nitrogen and argon. Transient and significant changes of catalyst activity are expected in electrolysis coupled Haber-Bosch process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry in Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle
XPS Studies of the Initial Oxidation of Polycrystalline Rh Surface
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060617 - 02 Jun 2020
Abstract
Increased interest in the oxidation process of polycrystalline rhodium, observed in recent years, is the result of its application in exhaust catalytic converters. However, most studies have involved sample surfaces with low Miller indices. In our research, we investigated polycrystalline rhodium foil containing [...] Read more.
Increased interest in the oxidation process of polycrystalline rhodium, observed in recent years, is the result of its application in exhaust catalytic converters. However, most studies have involved sample surfaces with low Miller indices. In our research, we investigated polycrystalline rhodium foil containing crystallographically different, highly stepped, µm-sized crystallites. These crystallites were exposed to identical oxidizing conditions. To determine crystallographic orientation, the electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) method was used. To investigate the initial stages of oxidation on the individual crystallites of Rh, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were performed. The results obtained for the individual crystallites were compared and analyzed using chemical state quantification of XPS data and multivariate statistical analysis (MVA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry in Catalysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
High Temperature Water Gas Shift Reactivity of Novel Perovskite Catalysts
Catalysts 2020, 10(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10050582 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
High temperature water-gas shift (HT-WGS) is an industrially highly relevant reaction. Moreover, climate change and the resulting necessary search for sustainable energy sources are making WGS and reverse-WGS catalytic key reactions for synthetic fuel production. Hence, extensive research has been done to develop [...] Read more.
High temperature water-gas shift (HT-WGS) is an industrially highly relevant reaction. Moreover, climate change and the resulting necessary search for sustainable energy sources are making WGS and reverse-WGS catalytic key reactions for synthetic fuel production. Hence, extensive research has been done to develop improved or novel catalysts. An extremely promising material class for novel highly active HT-WGS catalysts with superior thermal stability are perovskite-type oxides. With their large compositional flexibility, they enable new options for rational catalyst design. Particularly, both cation sites (A and B in ABO3) can be doped with promoters or catalytically active elements. Additionally, B-site dopants are able to migrate to the surface under reducing conditions (a process called exsolution), forming catalytically active nanoparticles and creating an interface that can strongly boost catalytic performance. In this study, we varied A-site composition and B-site doping (Ni, Co), thus comparing six novel perovskites and testing them for their HT-WGS activity: La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ, La0.6Ca0.4FeO3-δ, Nd0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ, Nd0.6Ca0.4FeO3-δ, Nd0.6Ca0.4Fe0.9Ni0.1O3-δ and Nd0.6Ca0.4Fe0.9Co0.1O3-δ. Cobalt and Nickel doping resulted in the highest activity observed in our study, highlighting that doped perovskites are promising novel HT-WGS catalysts. The effect of the compositional variations is discussed considering the kinetics of the two partial reactions of WGS-CO oxidation and water splitting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry in Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Interaction of SO2 with the Platinum (001), (011), and (111) Surfaces: A DFT Study
Catalysts 2020, 10(5), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10050558 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
Given the importance of SO2 as a pollutant species in the environment and its role in the hybrid sulphur (HyS) cycle for hydrogen production, we carried out a density functional theory study of its interaction with the Pt (001), (011), and (111) [...] Read more.
Given the importance of SO2 as a pollutant species in the environment and its role in the hybrid sulphur (HyS) cycle for hydrogen production, we carried out a density functional theory study of its interaction with the Pt (001), (011), and (111) surfaces. First, we investigated the adsorption of a single SO2 molecule on the three Pt surfaces. On both the (001) and (111) surfaces, the SO2 had a S,O-bonded geometry, while on the (011) surface, it had a co-pyramidal and bridge geometry. The largest adsorption energy was obtained on the (001) surface (Eads = −2.47 eV), followed by the (011) surface (Eads = −2.39 and −2.28 eV for co-pyramidal and bridge geometries, respectively) and the (111) surface (Eads = −1.85 eV). When the surface coverage was increased up to a monolayer, we noted an increase of Eads/SO2 for all the surfaces, but the (001) surface remained the most favourable overall for SO2 adsorption. On the (111) surface, we found that when the surface coverage was θ > 0.78, two neighbouring SO2 molecules reacted to form SO and SO3. Considering the experimental conditions, we observed that the highest coverage in terms of the number of SO2 molecules per metal surface area was (111) > (001) > (011). As expected, when the temperature increased, the surface coverage decreased on all the surfaces, and gradual desorption of SO2 would occur above 500 K. Total desorption occurred at temperatures higher than 700 K for the (011) and (111) surfaces. It was seen that at 0 and 800 K, only the (001) and (111) surfaces were expressed in the morphology, but at 298 and 400 K, the (011) surface was present as well. Taking into account these data and those from a previous paper on water adsorption on Pt, it was evident that at temperatures between 400 and 450 K, where the HyS cycle operates, most of the water would desorb from the surface, thereby increasing the SO2 concentration, which in turn may lead to sulphur poisoning of the catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry in Catalysis)
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