Special Issue "Catalytic Oxidation in Environmental Protection"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Eleni Iliopoulou

Laboratory of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH), Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research & Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +302310498312
Interests: catalytic abatement of atmospheric pollutants (CO, NOx, SOx, methane); heterogeneous catalysts synthesis; mesoporous materials; nanostructured metal oxides; zeolites; supported catalysts; structure/activity/selectivity relationships in catalysis; lignocellulosic waste biomass; valorization; biofuels; bio-commodities
Guest Editor
Dr. Changsheng Su

Cummins Emission Solutions, Cummins Inc., 301 Jackson Street, Columbus, IN 47201, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1-812-657-1662
Interests: alternative fuels & emission; exhaust aftertreatment system design; applied environmental catalysis; De-NOx technologies; Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR); diesel oxidation catalyst; diesel soot oxidation; GHG (Green-House Gas) reduction; electrode catalysts for fuel cells; reactor design; emission control modeling and simulations; catalyst processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As is well known, interest in different aspects of environmental catalysis has been steadily growing, in both academic and industrial sectors, and, thus, great efforts have been devoted worldwide to investigate the design, synthesis and application of novel multifunctional materials as oxidation catalysts for the removal of harmful pollutants, aiming to improve air and water quality. The first case refers to a plethora of major air pollutants emitted from various sources, such as CO, VOCs, ozone, particulate matter, other toxic air pollutants (including ammonia, benzene, dioxin, mercury, etc.), and, of course, greenhouse gases, such as methane and nitrous oxide. Concerning the latter case, a large variety of research groups are devoted to the evaluation of new photocatalytic materials and the elimination of contaminants and pathogens in both aqueous and gaseous phases, while other additionally deal with water decontamination by processes, such as catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, Fenton-alike reactions and electrochemical oxidation.

The current Special Issue aspires to compile some of the most recent and forward-looking concepts related with all aspects of catalytic oxidation technology for environmental protection, ranging from design and synthesis, characterization, efficiency and deactivation of novel materials, as well as new pioneering concepts of catalytic processes, reaction kinetics and modelling/simulation of materials and reactions.

Dr. Eleni Iliopoulou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pollution abatement (CO, VOCs, methane, ammonia, soot, etc.)
  • wet-oxidation
  • photo- and electrocatalysis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Simulating Real World Soot-Catalyst Contact Conditions for Lab-Scale Catalytic Soot Oxidation Studies
Catalysts 2018, 8(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8060247
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In diesel soot oxidation studies, both well-defined model soot and a reliable means to simulate realistic contact conditions with catalysts are crucial. This study is the first attempt in the field to establish a lab-scale continuous flame soot deposition method in simulating the
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In diesel soot oxidation studies, both well-defined model soot and a reliable means to simulate realistic contact conditions with catalysts are crucial. This study is the first attempt in the field to establish a lab-scale continuous flame soot deposition method in simulating the “contact condition” of soot and a structured diesel particulate filter (DPF) catalyst. The properties of this flame soot were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for structure analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) for surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for reactivity and kinetics analysis. For validation purposes, catalytic oxidation of Tiki® soot using the simulated contact condition was conducted to compare with the diesel particulates collected from a real diesel engine exhaust system. It was found that the flame soot is more uniform and controllable than similar samples of collected diesel particulates. The change in T50 due to the presence of the catalyst is very similar in both cases, implying that the flame deposit method is able to produce comparably realistic contact conditions to that resulting from the real exhaust system. Comparing against the expensive engine testing, this novel method allows researchers to quickly set up a procedure in the laboratory scale to reveal the catalytic soot oxidation properties in a comparable loose contact condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Oxidation in Environmental Protection)
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Open AccessArticle Catalytic Ozonation of Toluene Using Chilean Natural Zeolite: The Key Role of Brønsted and Lewis Acid Sites
Catalysts 2018, 8(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8050211
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
The influence of surface physical-chemical characteristics of Chilean natural zeolite on the catalytic ozonation of toluene is presented in this article. Surface characteristics of natural zeolite were modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Prior to catalytic ozonation
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The influence of surface physical-chemical characteristics of Chilean natural zeolite on the catalytic ozonation of toluene is presented in this article. Surface characteristics of natural zeolite were modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Prior to catalytic ozonation assays, natural and chemically modified zeolite samples were thermally treated at 623 and 823 K in order to enhance Brønsted and Lewis acid sites formation, respectively. Natural and modified zeolite samples were characterised by N2 adsorption at 77 K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, using pyridine as a probe molecule. The highest values of the reaction rate of toluene oxidation were observed when NH4Z1 and 2NH4Z1 zeolite samples were used. Those samples registered the highest density values of Lewis acid sites compared to other samples used here. Results indicate that the presence of strong Lewis acid sites at the 2NH4Z1 zeolite surface causes an increase in the reaction rate of toluene oxidation, confirming the role of Lewis acid sites during the catalytic ozonation of toluene at room temperature. Lewis acid sites decompose gaseous ozone into atomic oxygen, which reacts with the adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites. On the other hand, no significant contribution of Brønsted acid sites on the reaction rate was registered when NH4Z1 and 2NH4Z1 zeolite samples were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Oxidation in Environmental Protection)
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Open AccessArticle Fe Oxides Loaded on Carbon Cloth by Hydrothermal Process as an Effective and Reusable Heterogenous Fenton Catalyst
Catalysts 2018, 8(5), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8050207
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Iron based heterogeneous Fenton catalysts are attracting much attention for its economic and environmental friendly characteristics. In this study, iron oxides loaded carbon cloth (assigned as Fe@CC) was prepared using hydrothermal hydrolysis of Fe(NO3)3. The specific surface area of
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Iron based heterogeneous Fenton catalysts are attracting much attention for its economic and environmental friendly characteristics. In this study, iron oxides loaded carbon cloth (assigned as Fe@CC) was prepared using hydrothermal hydrolysis of Fe(NO3)3. The specific surface area of Fe@CC determined by N2 adsorption–desorption Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method was up to 1325.5 m2/g, which increased by 81.8% compared with that of native carbon cloth mainly due to the loading of iron oxide. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) spectra confirmed that the iron oxide on the carbon surface included mainly FeOOH. Its heterogeneous Fenton-like activity was determined using Acid Red G as a model substrate for degradation. Fe@CC maintained high and relatively stable activity during 11 tests, and it showed high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal efficiency and high apparent H2O2 utilization efficiency. The homogeneous Fenton reaction using the amount of leached Fe(III) suggested that the surficial reaction on Fe@CC was dominant. The stability and the mechanism for gradual decrease of activity during the first 4 tests were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Oxidation in Environmental Protection)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of RGO-P25 Nanocomposites for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Ammonia in Livestock Farms
Catalysts 2018, 8(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8050189
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, the Hummer’s method was used to prepare the compound catalyst of reduced graphene and TiO2 (RGO-P25), and the sand core plate was used as the carrier to provide the theoretical basis for the application of animal environmental purification by
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In this paper, the Hummer’s method was used to prepare the compound catalyst of reduced graphene and TiO2 (RGO-P25), and the sand core plate was used as the carrier to provide the theoretical basis for the application of animal environmental purification by exploring the degradation of ammonia in RGO-P25. Characterization results show that the band gap of P25 is reduced from 3.14 eV to 2.96 eV after the combination of RGO, and the recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons and holes also decreased significantly, both resulting in the improvement of ammonia degradation by composite catalysts. Experimental results show that the carrier (sand core plate) and RGO-P25 are effectively stabilized with Si–O–Ti, but the blank core plate carrier could not degrade the ammonia, and its adsorption is not obvious, only 5% ± 1%, under 300 W ultraviolet lamp irradiation, the degradation rates of P25, RGO and RGO-P25 for ammonia at initial concentrations of 119–124 ppm were 72.25%, 81.66% and 93.64%, respectively. P25 dispersed through RGO can effectively adsorb ammonia on the surface to provide a reaction environment and thereby improve its photocatalytic efficiency, thus, endowing the RGO-P25 composites with higher photocatalytic degradation performance than RGO or P25 individually. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Oxidation in Environmental Protection)
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Open AccessArticle Wood-Biochar-Supported Magnetite Nanoparticles for Remediation of PAH-Contaminated Estuary Sediment
Catalysts 2018, 8(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8020073
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the ability of a magnetic wood biochar (WB)-based composite catalyst (Fe3O4–WB) to catalyze sodium persulfate (PS) for the remediation of estuary sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The effects of various critical parameters,
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In this study, we investigated the ability of a magnetic wood biochar (WB)-based composite catalyst (Fe3O4–WB) to catalyze sodium persulfate (PS) for the remediation of estuary sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The effects of various critical parameters, including the catalyst dose and initial pH, were investigated. The degradation of the PAHs was found to be related to the number of rings in their structure. The results showed that Fe3O4–WB is an efficient catalyst for the removal of high-ring PAHs (HPAHs), with the highest degradation rates for the 6-, 5-, and 4-ringed PAHs being 90%, 84%, and 87%, respectively, for a PS concentration of 2 × 10−5 M, catalyst concentration of 3.33 g/L, and pH of 3.0. That the reduction rate of the HPAHs was greater than that of the low-ring PAHs can be attributed to the strong affinity of the HPAHs for biochar derived from wood biomass. Overall, this study revealed that the WB-mediated electron transfer catalysis of the surface functional groups in a wide range of pH in the Fe3O4–WB/PS system and potentially application in the remediation of sediments contaminated with PAHs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Oxidation in Environmental Protection)
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Open AccessArticle Removal of NOX Using Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor over Fe/TiO2 Catalysts and an Absorption Technique
Catalysts 2017, 7(12), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7120386
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (12065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we proposed an innovative oxidation–absorption method for low-temperature denitrification (160–240 °C), in which NO is initially catalytically oxidized by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor over titania-based catalysts, and the oxidation products are then absorbed by NaOH solution.
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In this study, we proposed an innovative oxidation–absorption method for low-temperature denitrification (160–240 °C), in which NO is initially catalytically oxidized by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor over titania-based catalysts, and the oxidation products are then absorbed by NaOH solution. The effects of flue gas temperature, molar H2O2/NO ratio, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), and Fe substitution amounts of Fe/TiO2 catalysts on the denitrification efficiency were investigated by a well-designed experiment. The results indicated that the Fe/TiO2 catalyst exhibited a combination of remarkable activity and deep oxidation ability (NO converted into harmless NO3). In order to comprehend the functional mechanism of the Fe dopant’s local environment in TiO2 support, the promotional effect of the calcination temperature of Fe/TiO2 on the denitration performance was also studied. A tentative synergetic mechanism could be interpreted from two aspects: (1) Fe3+ as a substitute of Ti4+, leading to the formation of enriched oxygen vacancies at the surface, could significantly improve the adsorption efficiency of •OH; (2) the isolated surface Fe ion holds a strong adsorption affinity for NO, such that the adsorbed NO could be easily oxidized by the pre-formed •OH. This process offers a promising alternative for current denitrification technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Oxidation in Environmental Protection)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Preparation Method on the Structure and Catalytic Activity of Ag–Fe2O3 Catalysts Derived from MOFs
Catalysts 2017, 7(12), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7120382
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, Ag–Fe2O3 catalysts were successfully prepared using several different methods. Our main intention was to investigate the effect of the preparation methods on the catalysts’ structure and their catalytic performance for CO oxidation. The catalysts were characterized by
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In this work, Ag–Fe2O3 catalysts were successfully prepared using several different methods. Our main intention was to investigate the effect of the preparation methods on the catalysts’ structure and their catalytic performance for CO oxidation. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption–desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2-temperature program reduction (H2-TPR) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Ag–Fe catalysts prepared by impregnating Ag into MIL-100 (Fe) presented the best catalytic activity, over which CO could be completely oxidized at 160 °C. Based on the characterization, it was found that more metallic Ag species and porosity existed on Ag–Fe catalysts, which could efficiently absorb atmospheric oxygen and, thus, enhance the CO oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Oxidation in Environmental Protection)
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