Special Issue "Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Antonio Vita
Website
Guest Editor
CNR, ITAE Nicola Giordano, Via Salita S Lucia Contesse 5, I-98126 Messina, Italy
Interests: catalyst synthesis and characterisation; structured catalysts and reactors; reforming processes; reformer prototypes; hydrogen/syngas production; CO2 conversion to methane

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past several years, cerium oxide and CeO2-containing materials have come under intense investigation as catalysts and as structural and electronic promoters of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The fundamental interest in, and commercial applications of, cerium oxide as a catalytic material is due to its high abundance in the Earth’s crust, relatively low cost and unique properties, such as high oxygen storage capacity and mobility and ability to form solid solutions with a large variety of oxides. Apart from well-established uses in three-way catalysts (TWCs), CeO2 is emerging as a catalyst component for a wide range of catalytic applications: Reforming of hydrocarbons and oxygenates, CO oxidation and preferential CO oxidation in the presence of H2 (PROX), water–gas shift (WGS), conversion of syngas to alcohols, C–C coupling, aldol condensations, partial oxidation, solar-driven thermochemical CO2 reduction, CO2 conversion to fuels and chemicals and clean energy production with solid oxide fuel cells. This Special Issue is intended to cover the most recent progress in catalytic applications of CeO2-based materials from synthesis and characterization to the evaluation of activity in order to gain insights towards the development and the utilization of one of the most important industrial and environmental constituent in a wide range of catalytic systems. 

Dr. Antonio Vita
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Cerium Oxide
  • Catalytic processes
  • Ceria-based Catalyst
  • Environmental catalysis
  • Solid solution
  • Redox properties
  • Heterogeneous catalysis
  • Three-way catalysts
  • Reforming
  • Water gas shift reaction
  • Partial oxidation
  • aldol condensations
  • C–C coupling
  • CO2 conversion
  • CO conversion
  • Fuel Cell

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials
Catalysts 2020, 10(5), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10050576 - 20 May 2020
Abstract
Among the metal-oxides, ceria represents one of the most promising materials for chemical transformations mainly for environmental applications and energy conversion systems [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Modelling of the Aqueous-Phase Reforming of Fischer-Tropsch Water over Ceria-Zirconia Supported Nickel-Copper Catalyst
Catalysts 2019, 9(11), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9110936 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, a mixture of CO and H2 is converted into hydrocarbons and water with diluted organics. This water fraction with oxygenated hydrocarbons can be processed through aqueous-phase reforming (APR) to produce H2. Therefore, the APR of [...] Read more.
In the Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, a mixture of CO and H2 is converted into hydrocarbons and water with diluted organics. This water fraction with oxygenated hydrocarbons can be processed through aqueous-phase reforming (APR) to produce H2. Therefore, the APR of FT water may decrease the environmental impact of organic waters and improve the efficiency of the FT process. This work aimed at developing a kinetic model for the APR of FT water. APR experiments were conducted with real FT water in a continuous packed-bed reactor at different operating conditions of temperature (210–240 °C), pressure (3.2–4.5 MPa) and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) (40–200 h−1) over a nickel-copper catalyst supported on ceria-zirconia. The kinetic model considered C1-C4 alcohols as reactants, H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 as the gaseous products, and acetic acid as the only liquid product. The kinetic model included seven reactions, the reaction rates of which were expressed with power law equations. The kinetic parameters were estimated with variances and confidence intervals that explain the accuracy of the model to estimate the outlet liquid composition resulting from the APR of FT water. The kinetic model developed in this work may facilitate the development of APR to be integrated in a FT synthesis process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Ni/CeO2 Structured Catalysts for Solar Reforming of Spent Solvents
Catalysts 2019, 9(8), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9080688 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Spent solvents of the packaging industry are disposed of, thus representing economic, safety, and environmental issues. Steam reforming of these solvent streams can be an alternative, allowing their valorization to syngas. In this work, ceria supported nickel catalysts were deposed onto silicon carbide [...] Read more.
Spent solvents of the packaging industry are disposed of, thus representing economic, safety, and environmental issues. Steam reforming of these solvent streams can be an alternative, allowing their valorization to syngas. In this work, ceria supported nickel catalysts were deposed onto silicon carbide (SiC) honeycomb monoliths; these structured catalysts can be potentially used in solar steam reforming. Catalysts were characterized by SEM/EDS and tested in a lab-scale rig under conventional heating. Two spent solvent streams, coming from the distillation plant of the packaging industry Icimendue, were used as fuels. Catalytic tests have been carried out by changing the steam/carbon ratio, oxygen/carbon ratio, operating pressure, and fuel. The effect of the Ni content and the type of ceria were also studied. The best performances were obtained at low Ni content and by using micrometric rather than nanometric ceria as support. The structured catalysts showed good coking resistance, especially at H2O/C > 2, with oxygen addition furnishing a marginal improvement. On the contrary, oxygen feeding reduced the gas yield due to the formation of by-products being less reactive in reforming reactions. Performing the reforming process at high pressure the gas yield increased due to faster kinetics (higher reactants concentrations), higher contact times (slower flow rates), and process intensification. These results suggest that the proposed structured catalysts could be successfully applied in the solar reforming of spent solvents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into the Pyrolysis Processes of Ce-MOFs for Preparing Highly Active Catalysts of Toluene Combustion
Catalysts 2019, 9(8), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9080682 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been used as precursors of the catalysts for the combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the present work, three kinds of CeO2 catalysts were successfully synthesized from Ce-MOF-808, Ce-BTC, and Ce-UiO-66, with specific topological structures [...] Read more.
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been used as precursors of the catalysts for the combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the present work, three kinds of CeO2 catalysts were successfully synthesized from Ce-MOF-808, Ce-BTC, and Ce-UiO-66, with specific topological structures and coordinate environments. Catalysts with small particle size, stacking mode, and structural defects could be created by pyrolysis of Ce-MOFs, which affects the activity in the toluene combustion significantly. Raman spectra, XPS, and OSC studies were performed to reveal the formation of defect sites. The thermal redox properties were determined by H2-TPR. Catalytic activity tests were conducted on the toluene combustion, and CeO2-MOF-808 showed the best catalytic performance (T90 = 278 °C) due to its having the largest specific surface area, abundant active surface oxygen species, and low-temperature reducibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Catalytic Combustion of Diesel Soot on Ce/Zr Series Catalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method
Catalysts 2019, 9(8), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9080646 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cerium-zirconium (Ce-Zr) solid solutions have been extensively used in a wide variety of catalytic processes due to their unique catalytic features in conjunction with lower cost compared to noble metal-based systems. A series of Ce-Zr-based catalysts was prepared by the sol-gel method. The [...] Read more.
Cerium-zirconium (Ce-Zr) solid solutions have been extensively used in a wide variety of catalytic processes due to their unique catalytic features in conjunction with lower cost compared to noble metal-based systems. A series of Ce-Zr-based catalysts was prepared by the sol-gel method. The structure and morphology of these catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, investigation on catalytic performance was carried out by constructing a test platform, and the result indicated that the catalysts apparently decreased the soot ignition temperature. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity for soot oxidation under narrow contact conditions. The results revealed that some soot particles could react with adsorbed oxygen, and other part of diesel soot reacted with lattice oxygen. The activity of these catalysts was attributed to synergistic effect arising from the combination of K/Co/Zr and Ce-Zr solid solution, which led to the decrease in the ignition temperature to 294 °C (data from the test platform). The catalyst still keeps good stability and catalytic activity after the cycle oxidation experiment. A reaction pathway was proposed to explain catalytic combustion process of soot, i.e., combination of K/Co/Zr with Ce-Zr solid solution reduced the binding energy of Ce-Zr solid solution, which was conducive to provide more active sites to release the active oxygen (O2) or lattice oxygen (O2−). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Reducible Nanostructured CeO2 for CO Oxidation
Catalysts 2018, 8(11), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8110535 - 11 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Ceria in nanoscale with different morphologies, rod, tube and cube, were prepared through a hydrothermal process. The structure, morphology and textural properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and isothermal N2 adsorption-desorption. Ceria with [...] Read more.
Ceria in nanoscale with different morphologies, rod, tube and cube, were prepared through a hydrothermal process. The structure, morphology and textural properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and isothermal N2 adsorption-desorption. Ceria with different morphologies were evaluated as catalysts for CO oxidation. CeO2 nanorods showed superior activity to the others. When space velocity was 12,000 mL·gcat−1·h−1, the reaction temperature for 90% CO conversion (T90) was 228 °C. The main reason for the high activity was the existence of large amounts of easily reducible oxygen species, with a reduction temperature of 217 °C on the surface of CeO2 nanorods. Another cause was their relatively large surface area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Ce and Zr Modified WO3-TiO2 Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by NH3
Catalysts 2018, 8(9), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8090375 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
A series of Ce and/or Zr modified WO3-TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by the impregnation method, which were employed for NH3-SCR reaction. The T50 contour lines of NOx were used to quickly optimize catalyst composition, the Ce20Zr12.5WTi [...] Read more.
A series of Ce and/or Zr modified WO3-TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by the impregnation method, which were employed for NH3-SCR reaction. The T50 contour lines of NOx were used to quickly optimize catalyst composition, the Ce20Zr12.5WTi catalyst was considered to be the optimization result, and also exhibited excellent NH3-SCR activity and thermal stability with broad operation temperature window, which is a very promising catalyst for NOx abatement from diesel engine exhaust. The excellent catalytic performance is associated with the formation of Ce-Zr solid solution. The introduction of Zr to CeWTi catalyst facilitated the redox of Ce4+/Ce3+ and the formation of more acid sites, more Ce3+ ions, more oxygen vacancies, larger quantities of surface adsorbed oxygen species and NH3, which were beneficial for the excellent selective catalytic reduction (SCR) performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Applications of CeO2-Based Materials)
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