Special Issue "Fluid Catalytic Cracking"
A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 6736
Interests: Heavy oil and bitumen upgrading; thermal cracking; hydrocracking; nanoparticle application for catalysis, enhanced oil recovery, drilling fluids, and cement; wastewater treatment
Fluid catalytic cracking is an important unit for residue conversion into more useful light fractions. The H:C ratio of the product is increased through rejecting carbon atoms from the feed. Unconventional oil, including heavy oil and bitumen, constitutes more than 50 per cent of the current proven oil reserves and their market share is growing. These oils contribute large volumes of residue when processed through refineries, imposing high loads on upgrading units, including fluid catalytic cracking. Hence, there is a need for more effective upgrading units.
Despite its long history, the functionality of fluid catalytic cracking may be promoted by advancing catalyst technology, alteration of the process design and/or coupling with other upgrading processes.
Traditional fluid catalytic crack catalysts can be doped with nanoparticle promoters, which may alter the selectivity of the cracking reactions and reduce coke formation. Moreover, a conventional catalyst material may possibly be reduced in size to a nano-scale material. At this scale, and given the operating temperature of the unit, particle aggregation as well as catalyst regeneration, collection and recycling should be properly addressed. There is also room for introducing novel catalysts or even eliminating the need for a catalyst, while still operating at reasonable temperatures and pressures. Pathways for coke recycling and/or elimination from the product stream in the absence of a catalyst also need to be considered.
Alteration of the process design relates to catalyst arrangement, e.g. fluidized bed, fixed bed, etc. It may potentially lead to proposing slurry-type liquid phase reactions as potential substituents to the traditionally high temperature gaseous-phase fluid catalytic crackers. Proper residence times and reactor volumes should be kept in mind to enable new units to easily function within the existing refinery platform.
Coupling fluid catalytic cracking with other upgrading processes may give rise to new processes suited, in addition to refineries, to stand-alone operation. Stand-alone processes are effective for providing on-site partial upgrading, which is essential for achieving pumpable oil standards, especially given the volumes of high viscosity oil produced nowadays.
Prof. Maen Husein
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- Thermal cracking and catalytic cracking
- Residue conversion
- Partial upgrading
- Hydrogen donor molecules and solvents
- Fluidized bed reactors
- Packed bed reactors
- Catalyst poisoning
- Heteroatom removal