Special Issue "Stem Cell Engineering: From Reprogramming Technologies to Translational Biomedicines"

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Wenbin Deng
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
Interests: stem cell biology; regenerative medicine; neuroscience; glia; oligodendrocyte; astrocyte; microglia
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will explore both previously unappreciated mechanisms of stem cell reprogramming and differentiation, and new strategies of translating fundamental insights into discovery of new therapies. The scope of this Special Issue includes cell engineering-based disease modeling, stem cell-based drug discovery, and prospects for applying unique aspects of tissue engineering in stem cells for regenerative medicine. We are seeking contributions from leading investigators and experts who are interested in reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells, characterizing cell lineages and precursor populations and identifying key factors that influence growth/expansion of stem cells (e.g., DNA repair proteins and miRNAs), developing genetic or chemical platforms to reprogram or engineer cell fate and to control cell differentiation, with interdisciplinary approaches focused on early stage translational research to develop novel therapeutic approaches to address unmet medical needs. In particular, we welcome contributions on cell engineering with therapeutic applications, e.g., in vivo mouse lineage tracing models and in vitro near-physiological organoid culture methods to characterize stem/progenitor cell populations and to assess roles of mutant stem/progenitor cells in tumors, on the one hand, to harness the regenerative capacity of normal stem cells for therapeutic use, and on the other hand, to develop ways of blocking cancer-promoting activities of mutant stem cells. We hope this Special Issue will provide the most accessible and current contents of the key points and concepts in the field, and that researchers in the field will find these cutting-edge original research papers and in-depth review articles to be useful. Topics include:

• Genetic or epigenetic regulation of stem cell fate
• Transcriptional regulation or chemical modulation of stem cell fate
• Stem cell technology, 3D organoid culture, genome editing, CRISPR/Cas9 system, bioengineering, and cell-material interaction
• Cancer stem cells, cancer epigenetics, cancer metabolism, and 3D modeling of cancer using human iPSC

Dr. Wenbin Deng
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • in vitro reprogramming
  • direct reprogramming
  • stem cell fate
  • stem cell niche
  • cancer stem cell
  • small-molecule stem cell modulators
  • 3D organoid bioengineering
  • regulatory RNAs
  • stem cell medicine

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cryopreserved Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stimulate Regeneration in an Intervertebral Disc
Biomedicines 2015, 3(3), 237-247; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines3030237 - 07 Aug 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Degenerative diseases are a medical, social, and economic problem worldwide. The most significant factors predisposing the development of degenerative changes in intervertebral discs are a low density and poor biosynthetic potential of the cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy in this case should [...] Read more.
Background: Degenerative diseases are a medical, social, and economic problem worldwide. The most significant factors predisposing the development of degenerative changes in intervertebral discs are a low density and poor biosynthetic potential of the cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy in this case should show high clinical efficiency. Methods: The research aim was to evaluate the regenerative potential of cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) upon degenerative changes in intervertebral discs. Rats with simulated degenerative damage of the intervertebral disc Co6–Co7 were administrated with 0.5 × 106 of either native or cryopreserved cells on a collagen sponge to the defect area. The results of experiments were histomorphometrically evaluated on the 30th, 60th, and 90th days after treatment. Results: The restoration of tears, clefts, and collagen fiber fragmentations was noted on the 60th and 90th day after administration of native and cryopreserved MSCs respectively. An increase in fibrochondrocyte density got ahead of the annulus fibrosus height recovery. In the control group without treatment the regeneration was hardly observed. Conclusion: The use of MSCs promotes the restoration of the degenerated intervertebral disc. Cryopreserved MSCs have a “lag” therapeutic effect at the early stages, but show similar results to the native analogue on the 90th day after administration. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Current Use of Stem Cells in Bladder Tissue Regeneration and Bioengineering
Biomedicines 2017, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5010004 - 06 Jan 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
Many pathological processes including neurogenic bladder and malignancy necessitate bladder reconstruction, which is currently performed using intestinal tissue. The use of intestinal tissue, however, subjects patients to metabolic abnormalities, bladder stones, and other long-term sequelae, raising the need for a source of safe [...] Read more.
Many pathological processes including neurogenic bladder and malignancy necessitate bladder reconstruction, which is currently performed using intestinal tissue. The use of intestinal tissue, however, subjects patients to metabolic abnormalities, bladder stones, and other long-term sequelae, raising the need for a source of safe and reliable bladder tissue. Advancements in stem cell biology have catapulted stem cells to the center of many current tissue regeneration and bioengineering strategies. This review presents the recent advancements in the use of stem cells in bladder tissue bioengineering. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cellular and Molecular Preconditions for Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) Natural Reprogramming during Retinal Regeneration in Urodela
Biomedicines 2016, 4(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4040028 - 01 Dec 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Many regeneration processes in animals are based on the phenomenon of cell reprogramming followed by proliferation and differentiation in a different specialization direction. An insight into what makes natural (in vivo) cell reprogramming possible can help to solve a number of biomedical problems. [...] Read more.
Many regeneration processes in animals are based on the phenomenon of cell reprogramming followed by proliferation and differentiation in a different specialization direction. An insight into what makes natural (in vivo) cell reprogramming possible can help to solve a number of biomedical problems. In particular, the first problem is to reveal the intrinsic properties of the cells that are necessary and sufficient for reprogramming; the second, to evaluate these properties and, on this basis, to reveal potential endogenous sources for cell substitution in damaged tissues; and the third, to use the acquired data for developing approaches to in vitro cell reprogramming in order to obtain a cell reserve for damaged tissue repair. Normal cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in newts (Urodela) can change their specialization and transform into retinal neurons and ganglion cells (i.e., actualize their retinogenic potential). Therefore, they can serve as a model that provides the possibility to identify factors of the initial competence of vertebrate cells for reprogramming in vivo. This review deals mainly with the endogenous properties of native newt RPE cells themselves and, to a lesser extent, with exogenous mechanisms regulating the process of reprogramming, which are actively discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Stem Cell Therapies for Treatment of Liver Disease
Biomedicines 2016, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4010002 - 06 Jan 2016
Cited by 19
Abstract
Cell therapy is an emerging form of treatment for several liver diseases, but is limited by the availability of donor livers. Stem cells hold promise as an alternative to the use of primary hepatocytes. We performed an exhaustive review of the literature, with [...] Read more.
Cell therapy is an emerging form of treatment for several liver diseases, but is limited by the availability of donor livers. Stem cells hold promise as an alternative to the use of primary hepatocytes. We performed an exhaustive review of the literature, with a focus on the latest studies involving the use of stem cells for the treatment of liver disease. Stem cells can be harvested from a number of sources, or can be generated from somatic cells to create induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Different cell lines have been used experimentally to support liver function and treat inherited metabolic disorders, acute liver failure, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and small-for-size liver transplantations. Cell-based therapeutics may involve gene therapy, cell transplantation, bioartificial liver devices, or bioengineered organs. Research in this field is still very active. Stem cell therapy may, in the future, be used as a bridge to either liver transplantation or endogenous liver regeneration, but efficient differentiation and production protocols must be developed and safety must be demonstrated before it can be applied to clinical practice. Full article
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