Peripheral Nerve Stimulation

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurobiology and Clinical Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 18532

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53715, USA
Interests: neuromodulation; pain; discogenic pain; knee degenerative disease
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Peripheral nerve stimulation is one of the fastest-growing procedures. We have witnessed the development of new peripheral nerve stimulator devices and technologies, including battery operated, wireless, permanent and temporary devices. In addition, lead design and wave forms are different in contrasting devices.

Placement of leads close to peripheral nerves require good knowledge of the anatomy of the different nerves, in addition to good experience with localizing them by using the appropriate imaging technique.

In this Special Issue, we will be discussing the most up to date knowledge about peripheral nerve stimulation. Topics include but are not limited to:

Anatomy of the peripheral nervous system;

Mechanism of action of peripheral nerve stimulation;

Peripheral nerve stimulation for headache;

Peripheral nerve stimulation of the upper extremity;

Peripheral nerve stimulation for truncal pain;

Peripheral nerve stimulation of the lower extremities;

Peripheral nerve stimulation for neuroaxial pain/medial branches.

Dr.  Alaa Abd-Elsayed
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Peripheral nerve stimulation
  • PNS
  • Peripheral nerve dysfunctions
  • Neuromodulation
  • Headache
  • Complex regional pain syndrome
  • Cranial neuralgias

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation: The Evolution in Pain Medicine
by Alaa Abd-Elsayed and Ryan S. D’Souza
Biomedicines 2022, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10010018 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3144
Abstract
Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves has been utilized for a variety of indications for over five decades [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Nerve Stimulation)

Research

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23 pages, 3590 KiB  
Article
Neurodynamic Treatment Promotes Mechanical Pain Modulation in Sensory Neurons and Nerve Regeneration in Rats
by Giacomo Carta, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Federica Fregnan, Giulia Ronchi, Stefano De Zanet, Luisa Muratori, Giulia Nato, Marco Fogli, Giovanna Gambarotta, Stefano Geuna and Stefania Raimondo
Biomedicines 2022, 10(6), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061296 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3374
Abstract
Background: Somatic nerve injuries are a rising problem leading to disability associated with neuropathic pain commonly reported as mechanical allodynia (MA) and hyperalgesia. These symptoms are strongly dependent on specific processes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Neurodynamic treatment (NDT), consisting of selective [...] Read more.
Background: Somatic nerve injuries are a rising problem leading to disability associated with neuropathic pain commonly reported as mechanical allodynia (MA) and hyperalgesia. These symptoms are strongly dependent on specific processes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Neurodynamic treatment (NDT), consisting of selective uniaxial nerve repeated tension protocols, effectively reduces pain and disability in neuropathic pain patients even though the biological mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We aimed to define, both in vivo and ex vivo, how NDT could promote nerve regeneration and modulate some processes in the DRG linked to MA and hyperalgesia. Methods: We examined in Wistar rats, after unilateral median and ulnar nerve crush, the therapeutic effects of NDT and the possible protective effects of NDT administered for 10 days before the injury. We adopted an ex vivo model of DRG organotypic explant subjected to NDT to explore the selective effects on DRG cells. Results: Behavioural tests, morphological and morphometrical analyses, and gene and protein expression analyses were performed, and these tests revealed that NDT promotes nerve regeneration processes, speeds up sensory motor recovery, and modulates mechanical pain by affecting, in the DRG, the expression of TACAN, a mechanosensitive receptor shared between humans and rats responsible for MA and hyperalgesia. The ex vivo experiments have shown that NDT increases neurite regrowth and confirmed the modulation of TACAN. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study on the biological and molecular mechanisms induced by NDT will allow the exploration, in future clinical trials, of its efficacy in different conditions of neuropathic pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Nerve Stimulation)
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11 pages, 5292 KiB  
Article
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase 2 Expression and Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Recovery in a Rat Model of Facial Nerve Injury
by Myung Chul Yoo, In Yong Ryu, Jin Woo Choi, Jae Min Lee, Jae Yong Byun and Seung Geun Yeo
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020291 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
Background: NOX2 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2), which is upregulated by a variety of neurodegenerative factors, is neuroprotective and capable of reducing detrimental aspects of pathology following ischemic and traumatic brain injury, as well as in chronic neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Background: NOX2 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2), which is upregulated by a variety of neurodegenerative factors, is neuroprotective and capable of reducing detrimental aspects of pathology following ischemic and traumatic brain injury, as well as in chronic neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate NOX2 expression and the degree of functional recovery following different types of facial nerve injury and assess the effects of antioxidant intervention on nerve regeneration. Methods: A total of 40 mature (6-week-old) male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used. After inducing facial injury (compression injury or cutting injury), we randomized rats into four groups: A, crushing injury only; B, crushing injury with alpha lipoic acid (ALA); C, axotomy only; and D, axotomy with ALA. Recovery from facial nerve injury was evaluated 4 and 14 days after injury by performing behavioral assessments (observational scale of vibrissae movement, modified scale of eye closing and blinking reflex) and measuring changes in NOX2 experimental/control ratio in the injured (left, experimental) facial nerve relative to that in the uninjured (right, control) facial nerve. Results: A comparison between groups according to the type of injury showed a higher NOX2 expression ratio in the axotomy group than in the crushing group (p < 0.001). Regardless of injury type, both groups that received an injection of ALA exhibited a trend toward a higher NOX2 expression ratio, although this difference reached statistical significance only in the axotomy group (p < 0.001). In behavioral assessments, overall behavioral test scores were significantly higher in the crushing injury group immediately after the injury compared with that in the axotomy group. Additionally, in behavioral tests conducted 4 days after the crushing injury, the group injected with ALA showed better results than the group without injection of ALA (p = 0.031). Conclusions: Our study showed that NOX2 expression trended higher with facial nerve injury, exhibiting a significant increase with cutting-type injury. Furthermore, intraperitoneally injection with ALA may be an efficient strategy for accelerating peripheral facial nerve recovery after a crushing injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Nerve Stimulation)
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Review

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11 pages, 262 KiB  
Review
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in Painful Conditions of the Upper Extremity—An Overview
by Vincent Yaccarino, Max Y. Jin, Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Jacob M. Kraemer and Nalini Sehgal
Biomedicines 2022, 10(11), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10112776 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Our objective is to present a brief history of the evolution of peripheral nerve stimulation, the current understanding of peripheral nerve stimulation mechanisms in chronic pain, peripheral nerve stimulation applications in upper extremity chronic pain conditions, and complications of peripheral nerve stimulation. The [...] Read more.
Our objective is to present a brief history of the evolution of peripheral nerve stimulation, the current understanding of peripheral nerve stimulation mechanisms in chronic pain, peripheral nerve stimulation applications in upper extremity chronic pain conditions, and complications of peripheral nerve stimulation. The evolution of peripheral nerve stimulation from the early ages to the current status has been facilitated by discoveries in neurobehavioral mechanisms of pain, advances in technology and percutaneous lead development, and the availability of high-quality portable ultrasound units. Peripheral nerve stimulation application in managing upper extremity pain of amputated limbs, post-stroke shoulder pain, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and median, ulnar, and radial neuropathies are discussed. Finally, we describe complications of peripheral nerve stimulation. The availability of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve stimulation techniques and superior peripheral nerve stimulation technology have opened up new and minimally invasive treatment options for chronic intractable neuropathic pain of the upper extremity. Additionally, the ability to place peripheral nerve stimulation leads percutaneously without open peripheral nerve surgery expands the pool of implanting physicians, while simultaneously decreasing the risks and complications that are associated with open surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Nerve Stimulation)
12 pages, 909 KiB  
Review
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Lower Extremity Pain
by Clayton Busch, Olivia Smith, Tristan Weaver, Jayesh Vallabh and Alaa Abd-Elsayed
Biomedicines 2022, 10(7), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10071666 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4152
Abstract
Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is rapidly increasing in use. This interventional pain treatment modality involves modulating peripheral nerves for a variety of chronic pain conditions. This review evaluated its use specifically in the context of chronic lower extremity pain. Studies continue to elucidate [...] Read more.
Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is rapidly increasing in use. This interventional pain treatment modality involves modulating peripheral nerves for a variety of chronic pain conditions. This review evaluated its use specifically in the context of chronic lower extremity pain. Studies continue to elucidate the utility of PNS and better define indications, contraindications, as well as short- and long-term benefits of the procedure for the lower extremity. While large, prospective evidence is still lacking, the best available evidence suggests that improvements may be seen in pain scores, functionality, and opioid consumption. Overall, evidence synthesis suggests that PNS for the lower extremities may be a viable option for patients with chronic lower extremity pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Nerve Stimulation)
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16 pages, 625 KiB  
Review
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Treatment of Headaches: An Evidence-Based Review
by Steven Zhou, Nasir Hussain, Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Racha Boulos, Mohammed Hakim, Mayank Gupta and Tristan Weaver
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111588 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Headaches are one of the most common medical complaints worldwide, and treatment is often made difficult because of misclassification. Peripheral nerve stimulation has emerged as a novel treatment for the treatment of intractable headaches in recent years. While high-quality evidence does exist regarding [...] Read more.
Headaches are one of the most common medical complaints worldwide, and treatment is often made difficult because of misclassification. Peripheral nerve stimulation has emerged as a novel treatment for the treatment of intractable headaches in recent years. While high-quality evidence does exist regarding its use, efficacy is generally limited to specific nerves and headache types. While much research remains to bring this technology to the mainstream, clinicians are increasingly able to provide safe yet efficacious pain control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Nerve Stimulation)
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