Special Issue "Wind-Wave Interaction"
A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions".
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2019.
Prof. Dr. Dmitry Chalikov
P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation
Interests: numerical modelling of surface waves; boundary layer above and below waves
‘…it is the force of wind that makes the waves so great.’ (Homer, Iliad, Edition of 2000)
The origin of sea waves was already understood by people more than two thousand years ago. However, the basic properties of wind–wave interaction processes that are valid over a wide range of wind speeds and wave sizes have not yet been determined in full on a solid basis. The most persistent demands for the development of calculation methods for a wind–wave interaction process have produced wave prediction technology. Spectral models are unable to improve the method of calculation of wind input, since this term competes with dissipation terms, which is even less investigated. Meanwhile, a success of the wind–wave forecast depends completely on the accurate input and output of energy.
Currently it is believed that the input energy to waves in some spectral interval is a linear function of the energy contained in this interval with a coefficientdepending on a ratio of normal to a wave crest value of wind velocity and phase speed . In fact, this rule follows from a linear Miles theory (Miles, 1955). Even using such a simple scheme causes considerable difficulties, since the function is only known qualitatively.
The main wind–wave interaction mechanisms are concentrated very close to the moving interface, making it extremely difficult to carry out direct experimental measurements in the sea, especially under high wind. Most of the measurements are performed at levels higher than the wave crests, in fact, at heights where the difference between Wave Boundary Layer (WBL) and conventional Boundary Layer (BL) is not too large. The technical problems connected with taking measurements where they are actually required, i.e., very close to the surface, suggest that an adequate experimental solution may not be possible. Even laboratory data have to be often considered as qualitative, because of the problems associated with scaling and the small sizes of laboratory tanks.
The wind–wave interaction is a part of a more general problem of boundary layers in the air and water, separated by a moving interface. In order to accurately describe the interaction between wind and waves, it is necessary to obtain detailed information on: (1) the physics of wave drag and exchange by momentum, kinetic energy, heat and passive substances; (2) the spectral shape of a wind–wave interaction parameter and its asymptotic behavior both at high frequencies (a spectral tail) and low frequencies (long and fast waves); (3) its dependence on wave energy, stratification and gustiness; (4) its directional distribution; (5) a range of applicability for the quasi-linear representation of wind input; (6) the physics and statistics of wave breaking and its dependence on wave spectrum and wind. More generally, the modeling of the air–sea interaction processes also requires additional information on: (1) the influence of surface waves on the turbulent exchange of momentum, heat, mass and passive substances between the air and water; (2) the role of surface waves in the dynamics of WBL, the mixed layer (ML) and the upper thermocline (UT).Тhe following topics are preferable:
- Analyses of nature and laboratory experimental investigations of boundary layers above and below the wave interface.
- The results of theoretical investigations and the numerical modeling of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D waves and boundary layers above and below wave interfaces.
Homer (750BC-650BC), Iliad (2000) The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Iliad, by Homer
translated by Samuel Butler
Miles JW (1957) On the generation of surface waves by shear flows. J. Fluid Mech. 3, 185
Prof. Dr. Dmitry Chalikov
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