Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biometeorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2019) | Viewed by 49016

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Guest Editor
Department of Geography, University of Barcelona, C/Montalegre, 6, 08001 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: geography; tourism; environmental global change; rural areas; regional geography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In spite of the economic, political and social problems that have complicated the tourism business in certain resorts and destinations in recent years, in general terms tourism is a sector with continual growth that acts as an important engine of development at a worldwide level.

Climate and weather are fundamental factors for tourism development. However, the leisure and travel sector is itself an intensive emitter of large amounts of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and as such is an important modifier of climate conditions that can have negative effects on the future of this sector.

In this Special Issue we welcome articles that tackle the scientific challenges arising in the field of tourism climatology, given the bidirectional relationship between leisure and recreational activities and the climate. We will consider theoretical and conceptual reflections on this issue, methodological contributions and case studies relating amongst other things to the evaluation of the potential of climate resources for different types of tourism and segments of demand; the necessary consideration of climate in the organization and planning of tourism due to its links to key aspects for the sector such as water supply, artificial snow production and energy costs, among others; the repercussions of extreme meteorological phenomena on the safety of tourist destinations; the importance of providing climate and meteorological information adapted to different uses and needs to enable tourist activities to be carried out as well as possible; the direct and indirect impacts of climate change on the sector and the challenges arising in terms of the adaptation to and mitigation of this phenomenon.

Dr. M. Belén Gómez Martín
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Tourism–climate system
  • Climatic resources for tourism
  • Climatic/weather preferences of tourists
  • Climate/weather and tourist behavior
  • Methods to evaluate the tourist potential of the climate
  • Extreme atmospheric events and tourism
  • Climate and weather information for tourism
  • Climate services for tourism
  • Climate change impacts and mitigation/adaptation in tourism

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Tourism Climatology: Past, Present, and Future
by María Belén Gómez-Martín
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050605 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
This special issue, entitled Tourism Climatology: Past, Present, and Future, contains seven original articles and two review reports which tackle some of the main lines of research in the field of Tourism Climatology [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)

Research

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13 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Tourists’ Perceptions on Climate Change in Lisbon Region
by Filomena Clemente, António Lopes and Vitor Ambrósio
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030297 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3776
Abstract
The interface between climate change and tourism is multifaceted and complex. This research aims to understand the relationship established between the tourists’ concerns regarding the impacts of climate change and the risks that may arise and the willingness to pay (WTP) a supplementary [...] Read more.
The interface between climate change and tourism is multifaceted and complex. This research aims to understand the relationship established between the tourists’ concerns regarding the impacts of climate change and the risks that may arise and the willingness to pay (WTP) a supplementary fee, and what its value should be, in the tourist packages for environmental sustainability. The empirical phase of this research is presented in the form of a problem: “Will tourists be willing to pay a supplementary fee on tourist packages for environmental sustainability?”. To answer this question, a methodology was implemented in which a questionnaire was given to tourists, and the results were elaborated with several descriptive and multivariate statistics were elaborated. The results show that most tourists are not yet willing to pay a supplementary fee on tourist packages for environmental sustainability, but that this value increases with increasing concern about the risks associated with climate change. This research is intended to contribute to the development of more effective policies, in a bottom-up approach, to manage the risks related to climate change, facilitating successful adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
17 pages, 3555 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Oases Settlements
by Mohamed Elhadi Matallah, Djamel Alkama, Atef Ahriz and Shady Attia
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020185 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4019
Abstract
Oases throughout the world have become important ecosystems to replenish food and water supplies. The Saharan Oases exist above the largest underground water supplies in the World. In North Africa, oases witness significantly growing populations in the oasis towns and receive thousands of [...] Read more.
Oases throughout the world have become important ecosystems to replenish food and water supplies. The Saharan Oases exist above the largest underground water supplies in the World. In North Africa, oases witness significantly growing populations in the oasis towns and receive thousands of tourists yearly. In oasis settlements, the majority of the population spends most of the time outdoors, in extremely hot conditions; however, few studies have investigated urban outdoor thermal comfort conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to assess thermal comfort in the Tolga Oasis Complex and test the validity of the ‘oasis effect’ concept. The methodology is based on comparative field measurement and calculation approaches in the heart of Tolga Palm Grove and in different urban settlements. Results indicate highest heat stress levels (Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index) in the oases Palm Grove in July, PET = 41.7 °C, and urban settlements, PET = 40.9 °C. Despite the significant difference between the old and new settlement fabrics, our measurements and calculation did not identify any noticeable variation of thermal comfort. Thus, the oasis effect on the outdoor thermal comfort was insignificant (during July and August 2018). Finally, the study discusses ways to improve outdoor spaces design and relieve heat stress in the settlements of Tolga. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
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17 pages, 2591 KiB  
Article
Influence of Weather on the Behaviour of Tourists in a Beach Destination
by Diego R.-Toubes, Noelia Araújo-Vila and José Antonio Fraiz-Brea
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010121 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 9912
Abstract
In sun-and-beach destinations, weather has a decisive influence on the variability of the daily flow of tourists. Uncertainty in demand flows directly affects businesses and employment. This work aims to improve understanding of the behaviour of tourists in response to changes in weather [...] Read more.
In sun-and-beach destinations, weather has a decisive influence on the variability of the daily flow of tourists. Uncertainty in demand flows directly affects businesses and employment. This work aims to improve understanding of the behaviour of tourists in response to changes in weather conditions. The analysis is carried out in the Rías Baixas, a sun-and-beach destination in north-west Spain. The paper analyses the relationship of weather conditions with daily flows during the high season at the main tourist beaches in the area, also considering two beach typologies. The density of beach use is measured three times a day through the analysis of webcam images in combination with real-time weather, and an online survey is conducted among tourists who have visited these beaches. The results show that the hours of sunshine are the most influential weather factor. Weather forecast greatly or totally influenced the decision to go to the beach for almost 70% of respondents and about 80% of the respondents checked on the weather before visiting a beach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
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17 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Determining the Effect of Extreme Weather Events on Human Participation in Recreation and Tourism: A Case Study of the Toronto Zoo
by Micah J. Hewer
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010099 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3300
Abstract
This study devises a novel approach for defining extreme weather events and assessing their effects on human participation in recreation and tourism, based on a case study of attendance at the Toronto Zoo (Toronto, ON, Canada). Daily zoo attendance data from 1999 to [...] Read more.
This study devises a novel approach for defining extreme weather events and assessing their effects on human participation in recreation and tourism, based on a case study of attendance at the Toronto Zoo (Toronto, ON, Canada). Daily zoo attendance data from 1999 to 2018 was obtained and analyzed in connection with daily weather data from local weather stations for the maximum temperature, minimum temperature, total precipitation, and maximum wind speed. The “climatic distance” method, used for evaluating representative weather stations for case studies in applied climatology, was employed to rank and select surrounding weather stations that most accurately captured daily weather observations recorded at the Toronto Zoo from 1990 to 1992. Extreme weather events can be defined as lying in the outermost (most unusual) 10 percent of a place’s history. Using this definition as the foundation, a percentile approach was developed to identify and assess the effects of extreme weather events across the following thresholds: the 99th percentile, the 95th percentile, and the 90th percentile, as well as less than the 1st percentile, less than the 5th percentile, and less than the 10th percentile. Additionally, revealed, theoretical, and binary thresholds were also assessed to verify their merit and determine their effects, and were compared to the extreme weather events defined by the percentiles approach. Overall, extreme daily weather events had statistically significant negative effects on zoo attendance in Toronto, apart from a few cases, such as the positive effect of usually warm daytime temperatures in the winter and usually cool nighttime temperatures in the summer. The most influential weather event across all seasons was extremely hot temperatures, which has important implications for climate change impact assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
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20 pages, 7268 KiB  
Article
Rainfall and Flooding in Coastal Tourist Areas of the Canary Islands (Spain)
by Abel López Díez, Pablo Máyer Suárez, Jaime Díaz Pacheco and Pedro Dorta Antequera
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120809 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5700
Abstract
Coastal spaces exploited for tourism tend to be developed rapidly and with a desire to maximise profit, leading to diverse environmental problems, including flooding. As the origin of flood events is usually associated with intense precipitation episodes, this study considers the general rainfall [...] Read more.
Coastal spaces exploited for tourism tend to be developed rapidly and with a desire to maximise profit, leading to diverse environmental problems, including flooding. As the origin of flood events is usually associated with intense precipitation episodes, this study considers the general rainfall characteristics of tourist resorts in two islands of the Canary Archipelago (Spain). Days of intense rainfall were determined using the 99th percentile (99p) of 8 daily precipitation data series. In addition, the weather types that generated these episodes were identified, the best-fitting distribution functions were determined to allow calculation of probable maximum daily precipitation for different return periods, and the territorial and economic consequences of flood events were analysed. The results show highly irregular rainfall, with 99p values ranging 50–80 mm. The weather types associated with 49 days of flooding events were predominantly cyclonic and hybrid cyclonic. The Log Pearson III distribution function best fitted the data series, with a strong likelihood in a 100-year return period of rainfall exceeding 100 mm in a 24 h period. However, values below 30 mm have already resulted in significant flood damage, while intense rainfall events in the period 1998–2016 saw over 11.5 million euros paid out in damages for insured goods. Such flood-induced damages were found to be caused more by inadequate urban planning than by rainfall intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
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14 pages, 460 KiB  
Article
Climate Preferences for Tourism: Perceptions Regarding Ideal and Unfavourable Conditions for Hiking in Spain
by Emilio Martínez-Ibarra, María Belén Gómez-Martín, Xosé Anton Armesto-López and Rubén Pardo-Martínez
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110646 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3642
Abstract
Physical activity is an increasingly frequent part of our leisure time. Within this context, hiking is a popular form of tourism which has a positive impact on the quality of life. In spite of the importance of climate conditions for this recreational activity, [...] Read more.
Physical activity is an increasingly frequent part of our leisure time. Within this context, hiking is a popular form of tourism which has a positive impact on the quality of life. In spite of the importance of climate conditions for this recreational activity, relatively little research has been done on hiking from the perspective of climate and tourism. With this in mind in this paper we make the first detailed extensive assessment of climate preferences for the practice of hiking tourism in Spain. To this end a review of the theoretical/methodological body of literature on tourism climatology was conducted together with a survey aimed at evaluating the stated climate preferences of hiking tourists. The results are offered within the framework of international research on climate preferences for a range of tourism activities. The comparative analysis of these results with regard to those obtained in previous research highlights various similarities but also certain factors specific to hiking in Spain. Overall, the climate preferences of hiking tourists are similar to those of other segments of the tourism market in terms of the aesthetic and physical aspects of the climate, although they also have certain specific preferences as regards thermal aspects, especially regarding the optimal daily thermal conditions for hiking. The results obtained are useful for assessing the suitability of the climate for the practice of hiking tourism in Spain and for promoting proper management and planning of this leisure activity in tourist destinations, including the development of climate calendars detailing the most suitable times of the year for hiking at these destinations. These issues will be addressed in future research studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
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16 pages, 3117 KiB  
Article
Present and Future Climate—Tourism Conditions in Milos Island, Greece
by Panagiotis T. Nastos and Andreas Matzarakis
Atmosphere 2019, 10(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10030145 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5376
Abstract
The objective of this study is to analyze the present and future climate-tourism conditions in Milos Island, Cyclades, Greece, by means of the assessment of the three climate components (physical, thermal, and aesthetic), which interprets the so-called climatic tourism potential. Milos Island is [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to analyze the present and future climate-tourism conditions in Milos Island, Cyclades, Greece, by means of the assessment of the three climate components (physical, thermal, and aesthetic), which interprets the so-called climatic tourism potential. Milos Island is chosen as a representative island of the Cyclades complex in the Aegean Sea. Future climate change conditions are analyzed using the high-resolution simulations (grid size 0.11° × 0.11°) of the Regional Climate Model ALADIN 5.2 from Centre National de Recherche Meteorologiques, Meteo France (CNRM). The climate simulations concern the future periods 2021–2050 and 2071–2100 against the reference period 1961–1990, under two Representative Concentration Pathways, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Based on regional climate simulations, the tourism potential can be described in a meaningful and simple way by applying the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS), which depicts detailed climate information that could be used by tourists to foresee the thermal comfort, aesthetic, and physical conditions for planning their vacations. More specifically, the thermal climate component is interpreted by the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is one of the most popular physiological thermal indices based on the human energy balance. The findings of the analysis could be used by stakeholders and the tourism industry in decision-making regarding the destination of Milos for tourism planning and touristic infrastructure development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
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Review

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21 pages, 6097 KiB  
Review
Geobibliography and Bibliometric Networks of Polar Tourism and Climate Change Research
by O. Cenk Demiroglu and C. Michael Hall
Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050498 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6495
Abstract
In late 2019, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released their much-awaited Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC). High mountain areas, polar regions, low-lying islands and coastal areas, and ocean and marine ecosystems, were separately dealt [...] Read more.
In late 2019, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released their much-awaited Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC). High mountain areas, polar regions, low-lying islands and coastal areas, and ocean and marine ecosystems, were separately dealt by experts to reveal the impacts of climate change on these regions, as well as the responses of the natural and human systems inhabiting or related to these regions. The tourism sector was found, among the main systems, influenced by climate change in the oceanic and cryospheric environments. In this study, we deepen the understanding of tourism and climate interrelationships in the polar regions. In doing so, we step outside the climate resilience of polar tourism paradigm and systematically assess the literature in terms of its gaps relating to an extended framework where the impacts of tourism on climate through a combined and rebound effects lens are in question as well. Following a systematic identification and screening on two major bibliometric databases, a final selection of 93 studies, spanning the 2004–2019 period, are visualized in terms of their thematic and co-authorship networks and a study area based geobibliography, coupled with an emerging hot spots analysis, to help identify gaps for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
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13 pages, 534 KiB  
Review
Progress and Prospects of Tourism Climate Research in China
by Linsheng Zhong and Dongjun Chen
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110701 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4106
Abstract
Tourism climate research is of great significance to the tourism industry because tourism is closely linked to climate. Based on an analysis of related core papers, this paper reviews the research progress on tourism climate in China in terms of research method, research [...] Read more.
Tourism climate research is of great significance to the tourism industry because tourism is closely linked to climate. Based on an analysis of related core papers, this paper reviews the research progress on tourism climate in China in terms of research method, research process, and research topic. Research on tourism climate in China started later than similar research in some Western countries and the topics mainly focused on tourism climate resources, climate comfort for tourism, the impact of climate on tourists’ behavior and emotion, climate and tourism seasonality, climate change and tourism development, etc. To provide scientific support for the sustainable development of China’s tourism industry, we propose the following for future research, based on our review of the literature: (1) strengthening the theoretical study of tourism climatology, (2) constructing and improving the research content system, and (3) enriching relevant research in climate-sensitive areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Climatology: Past, Present and Future)
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