Special Issue "Multifunctional Composite Materials"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Alkiviadis Paipetis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
Interests: composite materials (research, design and manufacturing); nondestructive evaluation and testing; hybrid-hierarchical-smart materials; multifunctional materials-lightweight; self sensing and actuation; energy harvesting; optical instrumentation; optical and spectroscopic characterisation of materials; mechanical testing and standardization; on line process monitoring; chemometrics and numerical algorithms for process identification; nanotechnology for structural/smart composites; fatigue and damage tolerance of composite/hybrid/ hierarchical materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Composite materials have been studied for several decades already. Particularly in the last decade, the use of structural composites materials has literally been booming in the aeronautics and automotive industry. This is marking a notable change in design mentality, i.e., the tailoring or “architecturing” of material in accordance with structural needs, a possibility uniquely offered by advanced composites. It is this mentality that gave birth to the next generation of composites, that of multifunctional composite materials. These materials made “by design” possess the required improved specific properties but are also equipped with additional properties which impart to them other functionalities, which may be structural or nonstructural.

To this aim, the hybridization of otherwise “traditional” composites has been widely studied. A typical case study is that of embedding nano-scaled reinforcement into the matrix of usually micro-scale reinforced systems, with a view to both enhancing the matrix dominated properties as well as imparting multifunctionality. In the literature, the additional functionalities provide diverse nonstructural capabilities, such as inherent structural health monitoring, sensing and actuation, power harvesting, and power storage, in addition to structural ones such as wear resistance, morphing or self-healing. The parallel structural and nonstructural capabilities of the new generation composites aim to enhance product life and increase product utility with minimum structural aggravation.

Functionalities imparted to the materials may be passive, active or even adaptive. For example, a material is subjected to a certain field during its service life. Thus, the material has to first sense the field effect, and, if it possesses some degree of “awareness”, evaluate it and even respond so as to adapt in order to retain its performance requirements. To perform these functionalities, there are power and coupling requirements. Additional to these requirements, the reliability and durability of such systems is also a major issue, as the functional properties need to extend throughout the service life of the material. Finally, one the major challenges related to multifunctionality is the provision of engineering to integrate these functionalities in the composite structure at a system level, whereby the architectured composite system will be enabled to perform the full cycle, i.e., sense–evaluate–react, in response to the external stimuli, be they mechanical, environmental or other.

This is an outline of the issues that form the scope of this Special Issue. Research papers are invited in relation to multifunctional advanced composite materials, smart materials, sensing and self-diagnosis, actuation and morphing, inherent energy harvesting and storage capabilities, environmental property enhancement, electromagnetic shielding, and in any other field where the materials by design perform in diverse ways so as to respond successfully to their service conditions.

Prof. Dr. Alkiviadis S. Paipetis
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • self-sensing and self diagnosis
  • self-healing
  • actuation and morphing
  • electromagnetic shielding
  • power harvesting and storage
  • structural health monitoring

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Corrosion Protection Evaluation of Mild Steel: The Role of Hybrid Materials Loaded with Inhibitors
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6594; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186594 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
In the present work, an assessment of the corrosion behavior of mild steel in the presence of an organic corrosion inhibitor loaded into hybrid composite materials is performed. Hybrid organic–inorganic nanocontainers based on cerium and titanium oxides were fabricated via a combination of [...] Read more.
In the present work, an assessment of the corrosion behavior of mild steel in the presence of an organic corrosion inhibitor loaded into hybrid composite materials is performed. Hybrid organic–inorganic nanocontainers based on cerium and titanium oxides were fabricated via a combination of radical polymerization together with the coprecipitation method and sol-gel technique. The corrosion inhibition role of these hybrid materials loaded with an inhibitor is considered. A set of characterization assays addressing morphology, composition and structural aspects of the exposed steels is illustrated, along with electrochemical evaluations. The results reveal enhanced stimuli responsive anticorrosion ability of the produced hybrid materials. Furthermore, upon corrosion, new compounds are formed onto the exposed areas of the treated metals. The conducted experiments shed light on the corrosion mechanisms for steel alloys as well as the actuation of the fabricated composite materials, paving the way for future developments in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composite Materials)
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Article
Mechanical Properties Assessment of Low-Content Capsule-Based Self-Healing Structural Composites
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 5739; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175739 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 455
Abstract
Microcapsule-based carbon fiber reinforced composites were manufactured by wet layup, in order to assess their mechanical properties and determine their healing efficiency. Microcapsules at 10%wt. containing bisphenol-A epoxy, encapsulated in a urea formaldehyde (UF) shell, were employed with Scandium (III) Triflate (Sc (OTf)3) [...] Read more.
Microcapsule-based carbon fiber reinforced composites were manufactured by wet layup, in order to assess their mechanical properties and determine their healing efficiency. Microcapsules at 10%wt. containing bisphenol-A epoxy, encapsulated in a urea formaldehyde (UF) shell, were employed with Scandium (III) Triflate (Sc (OTf)3) as the catalyst. The investigation was deployed with two main directions. The first monitored changes to the mechanical performance due to the presence of the healing agent within the composite. More precisely, a minor decrease in interlaminar fracture toughness (GIIC) (−14%), flexural strength (−12%) and modulus (−4%) compared to the reference material was reported. The second direction evaluated the healing efficiency. The experimental results showed significant recovery in fracture toughness up to 84% after the healing process, while flexural strength and modulus healing rates reached up to 14% and 23%, respectively. The Acoustic Emission technique was used to support the experimental results by the onsite monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composite Materials)
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Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites Based on Novel Carbon Nanowires and Polystyrene
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 5737; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175737 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Carbon into polymer nanocomposite is so far a common additive for the enhancement of the polymer properties. The properties of the polymer, such as thermal, and especially its mechanical properties, are improved by the homogeneously dispersed carbon nanoparticles on the polymer matrix. In [...] Read more.
Carbon into polymer nanocomposite is so far a common additive for the enhancement of the polymer properties. The properties of the polymer, such as thermal, and especially its mechanical properties, are improved by the homogeneously dispersed carbon nanoparticles on the polymer matrix. In this study, carbon wires in nano dimensions are, for the very first time, synthesized via the hard templating method from the silicate matrix MCM-41, and used as nano additives of polystyrene. The carbon nanowires were chemically oxidized, and further modified by attaching octadecylamine molecules, for the development of organic functionalities onto carbon nanowires surface. The nanocomposite materials of polystyrene with the modified carbon nanowires were prepared by a solution-precipitation method at three nano additive to polymer loadings (1, 3 and 5 wt%). The as-derived nanocomposites were studied with a combination of characterization and analytical techniques. The results showed that the thermal and mechanical properties of the polystyrene nanocomposites gradually improved while increasing nano-additive loading until 3 wt%. More specifically, the 3 wt% loading sample showed the best mechanical properties, while the 5 wt% sample was difficult to achieve satisfactory dispersion of carbon nanowires and consequently has a wide range of values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composite Materials)
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Article
Epoxy/Glass Fiber Nanostructured p- and n-Type Thermoelectric Enabled Model Composite Interphases
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5352; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155352 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
This experimental study is associated with the modification of glass fibers with efficient, organic, functional, thermoelectrically enabled coatings. The thermoelectric (TE) behavior of the coated glass fiber tows with either inherent p semiconductor type single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or the n-type molecular [...] Read more.
This experimental study is associated with the modification of glass fibers with efficient, organic, functional, thermoelectrically enabled coatings. The thermoelectric (TE) behavior of the coated glass fiber tows with either inherent p semiconductor type single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or the n-type molecular doped SWCNTs were examined within epoxy resin matrix in detail. The corresponding morphological, thermogravimetric, spectroscopic, and thermoelectric measurements were assessed in order to characterize the produced functional interphases. For the p-type model composites, the Seebeck coefficient was +16.2 μV/K which corresponds to a power factor of 0.02 μW/m∙K2 and for the n-type −28.4 μV/K which corresponds to power factor of 0.12 μW/m∙K2. The p–n junction between the model composites allowed for the fabrication of a single pair thermoelectric element generator (TEG) demonstrator. Furthermore, the stress transfer at the interphase of the coated glass fibers was studied by tow pull-out tests. The reference glass fiber tows presented the highest interfacial shear stress (IFSS) of 42.8 MPa in comparison to the p- and n-type SWCNT coated GF model composites that exhibited reduced IFSS values by 10.1% and 28.1%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composite Materials)
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Article
Enhanced out of Plane Electrical Conductivity in Polymer Composites Induced by CO2 Laser Irradiation of Carbon Fibers
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103561 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 866
Abstract
The creation of a hierarchical interface between the carbon fiber (CF) and the epoxy resin matrix of fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites has become an effective strategy for introducing multifunctional properties. Although the efficacy of many hierarchical interfaces has been established in lab-scale, their [...] Read more.
The creation of a hierarchical interface between the carbon fiber (CF) and the epoxy resin matrix of fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites has become an effective strategy for introducing multifunctional properties. Although the efficacy of many hierarchical interfaces has been established in lab-scale, their production is not amenable to high-volume, continuous, cost effective fiber production, which is required for the large-scale commercialization of composites. This work investigates the use of commercially available CO2 laser as a means of nano-structuring the surface of carbon fiber (CF) tows in an incessant throughput procedure. Even though the single carbon fiber tensile strength measurements showed a decrease up to 68% for the exposed CFs, the electrical conductivity exhibited an increment up to 18.4%. Furthermore, results on laminates comprised of irradiated unidirectional CF cloth, demonstrated an enhancement in out of plane electrical conductivity up to 43%, while preserved the Mode-I interlaminar fracture toughness of the composite, showing the potential for multifunctionality. This work indicates that the laser-induced graphitization of the CF surface can act as an interface for fast and cost-effective manufacturing of multifunctional CFRP composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composite Materials)
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Article
Design of 3D Structure Membrane for the Increased Sensitivity in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (mELISA)
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4171; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194171 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique has been widely used for the identification and quantification of biochemical markers. The typical ELISA requires a number of washing steps to eliminate the unbound proteins which sometimes cause the desorption of protein due to their [...] Read more.
The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique has been widely used for the identification and quantification of biochemical markers. The typical ELISA requires a number of washing steps to eliminate the unbound proteins which sometimes cause the desorption of protein due to their weak bonding between protein and well plate. In this study, we have developed a meshed type of plastic membrane in order to increase the reliable binding efficiency between proteins and the membrane surface, and to provide easy steps of washing. The use of our developed solid membrane has significantly increased the binding capacity of the biomolecules because this membrane ELISA (mELISA) provides 3D binding surfaces which increases the surface area when compared to the conventional 2D surface well plate. The columns were pretreated to form a self-assembled layer (SAM) on the surface for the stable conjugation of a target antibody. The SAM-coated membranes could be stored for one month without any further deterioration of stability. The measured optical density (O.D.) shows a 1.2-fold increase in IgG antigen (25 μg/mL) from the plastic membrane as compared with the conventional ELISA method. The concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone were also monitored using the mELISA method and it shows good linearity against the concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composite Materials)
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