Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Zufu Lu

School of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bone tissue regeneration; cell¬–biomaterial interactions, stem cell fate determination; microenvironment
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hala Zreiqat

Faculty of Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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Phone: +61-2-9351-2392
Interests: nanomaterial; 3D printing; stem cell and tissue regeneration; bioceramics
Guest Editor
Dr. Yogambha Ramaswamy

School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mechanobiology; bone tissue engineering; biomaterials; macromolecules

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Regenerating critical-sized bone defects or repairing non-union bone fractures remains a significant challenge in the orthopedic society.  There is a great need to develop new and effective approaches to replace the current “gold-standard” treatment consisting of bone autograft, which might result in complications, such as infection and donor-site morbidity. Over the last twenty years, much efforts have been directed to bone tissue engineering approaches, which involve three key players: (1) scaffold, (2) cells, and (3) soluble factors. As one of the key cornerstones of bone tissue engineering, a desired scaffold should satisfy requirements such as biodegradability, strong mechanical properties, and osteoinductivity and/or condunctivity, the latter important in promoting the desirable cell phenotype (e.g., osteoblasts).

Given that bone is a nanomaterial composed of organic (mainly collagen) and inorganic (mainly nano-hydroxyapatite) components, with a hierarchical structure ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale, the bone scaffold has to mimic the chemical and/or physical characteristics of the bone extracellular matrix (ECM). This will result in nanostructured scaffolds with the desirable architectural, topographical, and mechanical properties. Such scaffolds with structural similarity to the native bone architecture can regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, leading to the formation of functional tissues. 

In this Special Issue, we invite investigators to contribute original research as well as review articles related to developing nanomaterials for bone tissue regeneration. The topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Design, synthesis, and functionalization of composite biomaterials/nanobiomaterials for bone tissue regeneration;
  • Innovative nanomaterials that can mimic the bone extracellular matrix (ECM) to control stem cell fate for bone tissue regeneration;
  • Applications of nanomaterials as drug-delivering platforms and nucleotides-delivering vehicles for bone tissue regeneration;
  • Applications of nanomaterials for cell labeling and tracking.

Dr. Zufu Lu
Prof. Dr. Hala Zreiqat
Dr. Yogambha Ramaswamy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bone tissue engineering
  • nanomaterials
  • nanoparticles
  • stem cells

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Nano-Structured Demineralized Human Dentin Matrix to Enhance Bone and Dental Repair and Regeneration
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9051013
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM), derived from human teeth, is an excellent scaffold material with exciting bioactive properties to enhance bone and dental tissue engineering efficacy. In this article, first the nano-structure and bioactive components of the dentin matrix were reviewed. Then the preparation [...] Read more.
Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM), derived from human teeth, is an excellent scaffold material with exciting bioactive properties to enhance bone and dental tissue engineering efficacy. In this article, first the nano-structure and bioactive components of the dentin matrix were reviewed. Then the preparation methods of DDM and the resulting properties were discussed. Next, the efficacy of DDM as a bone substitute with in vitro and in vivo properties were analyzed. In addition, the applications of DDM in tooth regeneration with promising results were described, and the drawbacks and future research needs were also discussed. With the extraction of growth factors from DDM and the nano-structural properties of DDM, previous studies also broadened the use of DDM as a bioactive carrier for growth factor delivery. In addition, due to its excellent physical and biological properties, DDM was also investigated for incorporation into other biomaterials design and fabrication, yielding great enhancements in hard tissue regeneration efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessReview The Adoption of Three-Dimensional Additive Manufacturing from Biomedical Material Design to 3D Organ Printing
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040811
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting promises to change future lifestyle and the way we think about aging, the field of medicine, and the way clinicians treat ailing patients. In this brief review, we attempt to give a glimpse into how recent developments in 3D bioprinting [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting promises to change future lifestyle and the way we think about aging, the field of medicine, and the way clinicians treat ailing patients. In this brief review, we attempt to give a glimpse into how recent developments in 3D bioprinting are going to impact vast research ranging from complex and functional organ transplant to future toxicology studies and printed organ-like 3D spheroids. The techniques were successfully applied to reconstructed complex 3D functional tissue for implantation, application-based high-throughput (HTP) platforms for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profiling to understand the cellular basis of toxicity. We also provide an overview of merits/demerits of various bioprinting techniques and the physicochemical basis of bioink for tissue engineering. We briefly discuss the importance of universal bioink technology, and of time as the fourth dimension. Some examples of bioprinted tissue are shown, followed by a brief discussion on future biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Nanomaterials in Craniofacial Tissue Regeneration: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020317
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Nanotechnology is an exciting and innovative field when combined with tissue engineering, as it offers greater versatility in scaffold design for promoting cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The use of nanomaterials in craniofacial tissue regeneration is a newly developing field that holds great [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is an exciting and innovative field when combined with tissue engineering, as it offers greater versatility in scaffold design for promoting cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The use of nanomaterials in craniofacial tissue regeneration is a newly developing field that holds great potential for treating craniofacial defects. This review presents an overview of the nanomaterials used for craniofacial tissue regeneration as well as their clinical applications for periodontal, vascular (endodontics), cartilage (temporomandibular joint), and bone tissue regeneration (dental implants and mandibular defects). To enhance periodontal tissue regeneration, nanohydroxyapatite was used in conjunction with other scaffold materials, such as polylactic acid, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), polyamide, chitosan, and polycaprolactone. To facilitate pulp regeneration along with the revascularization of the periapical tissue, polymeric nanofibers were used to simulate extracellular matrix formation. For temporomandibular joint (cartilage) engineering, nanofibrous-type and nanocomposite-based scaffolds improved tissue growth, cell differentiation, adhesion, and synthesis of cartilaginous extracellular matrix. To enhance bone regeneration for dental implants and mandibular bone defects, nanomaterials such as nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffolds, nanomodified mineral trioxide aggregate, and graphene were tested. Although the scientific knowledge in nanomaterials is rapidly advancing, there remain many unexplored data regarding their standardization, safety, and interactions with the nanoenvironment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering)
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