Open Innovation in Startups: Competitive Strategies for Differentiation

A special issue of Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity (ISSN 2199-8531).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 December 2022) | Viewed by 31452

Special Issue Editors

Department of Audiovisual Communication and Advertising, Faculty of Communication Sciences, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
Interests: health communication; open innovation; tourism communication; communication and social media; influencers on social media; institutional communication; stakeholder engagement
Departament of Business Administration, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
Interests: entrepreneurship; startups; open Innovation; women-led companies; entrepreneurial Intention
Departament of Business Administration, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
Interests: communication and social media; open innovation; corporate reputation; health communication; smart tourism destination; influencers on social media

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The adoption of the open innovation paradigm implies opening the company to external sources as a key to competitiveness. Maintaining active communication channels with different stakeholders—customers, other companies, universities, research institutes, etc.—offers particularly significant benefits for any type of company. The combination of internal and external intelligence has led Chesbrough (2003) to study this concept since it was first introduced in the field of boundaries and networks management. However, the literature has associated this philosophy with companies characterized by their activities in changing environments, with high levels of technology and/or disruptive products, and which constantly make decisions in uncertain environments. In particular, start-ups seem to be connected to this philosophy as a direct consequence of their own reality. In any case, even today there is still a need for further development in this line, both because of the details involved in its implementation in this type of company and because of the lack of evidence on what performance can be directly attributed to open innovation.

Finally, going one step further, the internalization of this paradigm may be conditioned by the management style, and the proactivity that characterizes the business-promoting team, but so far, there is little research that also introduces variables such as gender, communication, or greater familiarity with digital environments as support tools to favour co-creation with stakeholders. Consequently, this Special Issue will focus on the management of their relationships with different stakeholders, and the contribution and effects this has on their differentiation strategies from different points of view: the definition of the business model, level of innovation, communication, reputation, etc.

Dr. Carlos de las Heras-Pedrosa
Dr. Patricia P. Iglesias-Sánchez
Dr. Carmen Jambrino-Maldonado
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • open innovation
  • stakeholder management
  • managed by women
  • open communication in startups
  • digital environment
  • empowerment
  • sustainability

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 3222 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Technological Knowledge Transfer between Silicon Fen Firms and University of Cambridge Based on Patents Analysis
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040216 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2156
Abstract
Silicon Fen (SF) is a cluster of high-tech firms located around the University of Cambridge (UoC) in the UK. This article, for the first time, investigates the technological bonds between SF firms and UoC based on patent analysis covering the period of 1999–2021. [...] Read more.
Silicon Fen (SF) is a cluster of high-tech firms located around the University of Cambridge (UoC) in the UK. This article, for the first time, investigates the technological bonds between SF firms and UoC based on patent analysis covering the period of 1999–2021. We provide a short history of SF, highlighting its early formation and growth, and the role of spin-off firms on its evolution. We employ joint patents generated by UoC and various business sectors of SF to calculate the values of technological collaboration strength (TCS). It is found that the majority of joint patents (61%) are generated by the Pharma/Biotech sector of SF with the highest value of TCS (16.45 × 10−3). Moreover, the patent’s economic values across various business disciplines in SF are calculated based on the total counts of citations. Our observations suggest that senior university academics making spin-off firms in a business cluster around their university can effectively facilitate university–firm technological collaboration. Furthermore, the relatively strong technological bond between UoC and the Pharma/Biotech sector of SF is confirmed to be influenced by the collaboration of the university with its own spin-off firms rather than large independent firms in SF. The outcomes of this research contribute to the knowledge of the collaboration between a main research university and a cluster of firms located in its geographical proximity. Full article
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27 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Effect of Flow on Impulsive Consumption: Evidence from Southeast Asian Live Streaming Platforms
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040212 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2941
Abstract
The impulsive live streaming consumption intentions of the Southeast Asian market are examined in this study. Online live streaming transactions, a new form of social media, are becoming popular due to their real-time communication and innovative business concept. Though little attention has been [...] Read more.
The impulsive live streaming consumption intentions of the Southeast Asian market are examined in this study. Online live streaming transactions, a new form of social media, are becoming popular due to their real-time communication and innovative business concept. Though little attention has been dedicated to it, a theoretical knowledge of Live Streaming Transaction (LST) is crucial given its broad application and unique features. The analysis of 8613 respondents from Southeast Asia in this study, based on flow, temperament, and personality theories, offers fresh perspectives on the mediating role of flow and the moderating effect of temperament in a cross-national setting. Cluster sampling was used to construct a mixed-method conditional indirect effects model. Since introverted temperament types look for voices that echo within them, our findings revealed that LSTs are more intriguing to this market segment. Theoretical and practical elements, as well as implications for future directions, are presented. Full article
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18 pages, 368 KiB  
Article
Public Policies, Open Innovation Ecosystems and Innovation Performance. Analysis of the Impact of Funding and Regulations
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040210 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
Open innovation (OI) has been implemented to develop competitive advantages based on the management of innovation with external players. As such, it is expected that the generalized adoption of OI practices needs to be nurtured by governmental public policies in order to enhance [...] Read more.
Open innovation (OI) has been implemented to develop competitive advantages based on the management of innovation with external players. As such, it is expected that the generalized adoption of OI practices needs to be nurtured by governmental public policies in order to enhance OI-based ecosystems. The role of open innovation ecosystems is known by the importance of multiple synergies among players/stakeholders, which are expected to be supported by regulations and funding to consolidate firms’ innovation results. This paper analyzes the role of regulations and funding on firms’ innovation performance using the double-hurdle estimation procedure. The results show that, in the first tier, inbound knowledge flows positively affect performance, and, in the second tier, public funds further reinforce innovation performance and fiscal and security regulations. In contrast, as regulations are perceived as barriers, they fail to impact innovation performance. With this paper, we manage to shed light on the importance of public policy funds in the support of thriving OI-based ecosystems as enhancers of firms’ innovation performance. Full article
33 pages, 2158 KiB  
Article
Open Innovation and Determinants of Technology-Driven Sustainable Value Creation in Incubated Start-Ups
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8030162 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
Business incubators ensure networking and facilitate Open Innovation (OI) collaborations both inside the incubator among entrepreneurs and outside with external stakeholders. Recently, the sustainability and the promotion of environment-friendly businesses has become an important focus for the business incubators. Sustainability-oriented business incubation is [...] Read more.
Business incubators ensure networking and facilitate Open Innovation (OI) collaborations both inside the incubator among entrepreneurs and outside with external stakeholders. Recently, the sustainability and the promotion of environment-friendly businesses has become an important focus for the business incubators. Sustainability-oriented business incubation is a relatively new and emerging topic both for scholars and BI practitioners. This paper aims to explore the theoretical groundings for the business incubation perspectives in facilitating sustainable value creation through OI approaches and to test research instruments exploring determinants of the technology-driven sustainable value creation in incubated start-ups in Latvia. Through the pilot survey, this study will also increase the awareness on the importance of the OI and the creation of sustainable value, and provides the preliminary results to be considered by scholars and practitioners. Results show that climate change, as a planetary boundary, positively stimulates incubated start-ups to improve their technology-driven sustainable value creation. However, sustainability ambition, if negatively influenced by the incubator location, negatively affects the technology-driven sustainable value creation. These results on the sustainability scale within the business incubation of start-ups contribute to the new theoretical concepts, related to integration of the sustainability issues and OI practices within business incubation. Full article
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17 pages, 350 KiB  
Article
In Search of the Spin-Out Entrepreneur
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8030106 - 22 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1919
Abstract
A spin-out happens when an employee quits a company to start a new venture; however, theories do not agree on whether the ‘spin-out entrepreneur’ will start the company in the same or in a different industry. We investigated a sample of 250 entrepreneurs [...] Read more.
A spin-out happens when an employee quits a company to start a new venture; however, theories do not agree on whether the ‘spin-out entrepreneur’ will start the company in the same or in a different industry. We investigated a sample of 250 entrepreneurs and 120 spin-out companies to understand what led an entrepreneur or a group of founders to enter a new industry. Our results contribute to theory, suggesting that spin-out entrepreneurs usually move to different and innovative industries owing to recombination of knowledge in founding teams. Our evidence supports the positive effect of different experiences within the team. Full article
29 pages, 1014 KiB  
Article
Digital Influencers, Food and Tourism—A New Model of Open Innovation for Businesses in the Ho.Re.Ca. Sector
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010050 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 9614
Abstract
The choice of influencer marketing as an endorser for promoting products and services is becoming a more and more effective communication strategy of open innovation. Their use of social media platforms, such as Instagram, allows them to be reached by millions of followers [...] Read more.
The choice of influencer marketing as an endorser for promoting products and services is becoming a more and more effective communication strategy of open innovation. Their use of social media platforms, such as Instagram, allows them to be reached by millions of followers all over the world. As a response to the economic crisis that affected Italy after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, Chiara Ferragni, one of the most endorsed influencers worldwide, started a communication campaign with the aim to promote Italian food and tourist destinations (cities of art, seaside, ski and countryside locations, thermal baths, museums, galleries, hotels, etc.). This study analyses Chiara Ferragni’s activity and the dynamic of communication she used via her Instagram (IG) profile to enhance Italian tourist destinations and “local food & wine”. Specifically, it measured the contribution of local food used as an evocative factor in the appreciation of a tourist destination and its power in different contexts. Hundreds of posts on the influencer’s IG profile were observed using the netnographic analysis. Subsequently, the AGIL model (Adaption, Goal Attainment, Integration, and Latent pattern maintenance) was applied to measure the main dimensions of this communication campaign and its effectiveness to relaunch touristic catering sectors. The study offers a new model of open innovation for advertising and promoting food and catering businesses. Full article
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17 pages, 2435 KiB  
Article
Strategic Management of the Malaga Brand through Open Innovation: Tourists and Residents’ Perception
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010028 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3472
Abstract
Territory brands are vehicles for transmitting the attributes that identify a geographical setting, they facilitate market positioning and can contribute to generating an opinion that determines the promotion strategies of a place. The investment decisions of both private companies and institutional bodies will [...] Read more.
Territory brands are vehicles for transmitting the attributes that identify a geographical setting, they facilitate market positioning and can contribute to generating an opinion that determines the promotion strategies of a place. The investment decisions of both private companies and institutional bodies will be strengthened if residents and tourists’ perception is known, seeking to reconcile the interests of visitors and citizens with the aim of collaborating in the creation of the city’s tourism planning under the principles of sustainability, open innovation and co-creation of value. The methodology used for this research focuses on an empirical study, for which a sample of 780 individuals was designed so that the Malaga brand was subjected to analysis with criteria of innovative opportunity, applying constructs that were measured with existing and proven scales. The results allow us to identify that the Malaga brand is being built and managed on the basis of the cultural projection of the city and its image attributes. The ratings of tourists and residents will serve as a basis for improving the management of Malaga as a tourist destination by the institutions involved, taking into account the interest of open innovation. The conclusions of the research can be extrapolated to other geographical environments with similar levels of tourism development. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 3727 KiB  
Review
An Updated Systematic Review of Business Accelerators: Functions, Operation, and Gaps in the Existing Literature
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8040214 - 07 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3350
Abstract
Business accelerators have emerged as an important innovation intermediary, with their primary role identified as stimulating premature startups through mentorship and training programs. However, despite significant improvement and 17 years of working history, there are still gaps in working behavior, business accelerator forms, [...] Read more.
Business accelerators have emerged as an important innovation intermediary, with their primary role identified as stimulating premature startups through mentorship and training programs. However, despite significant improvement and 17 years of working history, there are still gaps in working behavior, business accelerator forms, organizational structure, operations, and outcomes. This systematic review aims to boost the understanding of seed accelerators in innovation and entrepreneurial activities. The Context, Intervention, Mechanism, and Outcome (CIMO) framework was used to collect data from the 53 articles published in the last 17 years. In this current systematic review of applying a CIMO analysis to business accelerators, we retrieved 53 articles for further detailed studies, out of which 21 articles were assessed for the risk of bias analysis. The current review highlights that by providing learning opportunities, idea validation, increased access to growth, and innovation, startup accelerators achieved their goals. Moreover, the study also identified gaps in the literature and opportunities for cohort-based, short-term mentorship programs. The outcomes of the present study will provide suggestions for policymakers, entrepreneurs, managers, and investors. Full article
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