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Zoonotic Dis., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 3 articles

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16 pages, 1214 KiB  
Review
Global Distribution and Molecular Evolution of Bat Coronaviruses
by Mohamed El Sayes, Rebecca Badra, Mohamed A. Ali, Rabeh El-Shesheny and Ghazi Kayali
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(2), 146-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4020014 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Bat coronaviruses cause a wide range of illnesses in humans and animals. Bats are known to harbor a wide diversity of Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses. Betacoronaviruses have been linked to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and other diseases such [...] Read more.
Bat coronaviruses cause a wide range of illnesses in humans and animals. Bats are known to harbor a wide diversity of Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses. Betacoronaviruses have been linked to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and other diseases such as gastroenteritis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. In the last 20 years, three betacoronaviruses emerged and caused widespread outbreaks in humans, including two deadly betacoronavirus epidemics, SARS-CoV, with mortality rate of 10%, and MERS-CoV, with mortality rate of 34.7%, and SARS-CoV-2, which caused the COVID-19 pandemic, with mortality rate of 3.4%. Studies have shown that bats are the main natural reservoirs for these viruses or their ancestral viruses. Observed variations in bat coronavirus genomes indicate that these viruses may have a potential to transmit to other hosts in close contact with humans and subsequently transmit to humans. As of today, there are no reported cases of direct coronavirus transmission from bats to humans. One reason for this might be that intermediate hosts are required for the transmission of bat coronaviruses to humans. Further studies are needed to map the amino acids and genomic regions responsible for the interactions between the spike of coronavirus and its receptors. Full article
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11 pages, 1426 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania
by Vedasto Bandi, Bernard Ngowi, Emmanuel Mpolya, Andrew Martin Kilale and John-Mary Vianney
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(2), 135-145; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4020013 - 3 May 2024
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Abstract
Background: Taeniosis and cysticercosis are human infections caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. This study is a baseline for community-based intervention. We determined the prevalence of human cysticercosis and associated risk factors following a deworming program conducted throughout the country, with [...] Read more.
Background: Taeniosis and cysticercosis are human infections caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. This study is a baseline for community-based intervention. We determined the prevalence of human cysticercosis and associated risk factors following a deworming program conducted throughout the country, with Mbulu District being among the districts in Northern Tanzania. Methods: Human cysticercosis was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag- ELISA). Household interviews and observations were conducted to identify risk factors for cysticercosis transmissions among households and communities. Results: Three hundred individuals participated in this study. The age ranged from 5 to 89 years, with a median of 19 years. The prevalence of human cysticercosis was 23 (7.67%). The prevalence was high with 6 (11.76%) among individuals aged 26 to 35 years and ±45 years. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence by age group, sex, or occupation. Among the 300 participants, 82 (27.3%) had received anthelmintics during the previous year; among these, 5 (21.7%) were infected. The likelihood of infection was low among anthelmintic users by 28% [0.72 (0.26–2.01)], but the protection was not significant. The communities differed in risk factors on the availability of a clean and safe water supply; 52.7% (46/86) of households visited had no pit latrine. The cysticercosis prevalence showed a significant difference in communities. Conclusions: The prevalence of human cysticercosis was high and associated with higher age groups. The prevalence was low among those who had taken anthelmintics and was associated with lower age groups. The current school deworming program has a positive effect on school children, while the elderly are at higher risk because the intervention did not target them. It is recommended to scale up anthelmintic intervention to higher age groups. Full article
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12 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
A Zoonotic Strain of Rocahepevirus ratti Hepatitis E Virus Does Not Replicate Efficiently within Human Placental JEG-3 Cells
by Kush Kumar Yadav, Jacob D. Hofstetter and Scott P. Kenney
Zoonotic Dis. 2024, 4(2), 123-134; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis4020012 - 3 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Paslahepevirus balayani and Rocahepevirus ratti are genetically diverse species of hepatitis E virus [HEV]. Previously, only members of the Paslahepevirus genus were known to infect humans but recently some Rocahepevirus members have been found to be infectious to both immunocompromised and immunocompetent humans. Paslahepevirus [...] Read more.
Paslahepevirus balayani and Rocahepevirus ratti are genetically diverse species of hepatitis E virus [HEV]. Previously, only members of the Paslahepevirus genus were known to infect humans but recently some Rocahepevirus members have been found to be infectious to both immunocompromised and immunocompetent humans. Paslahepevirus balayani genotypes (gt) 1, 2, and 4 are known for their detrimental effects during pregnancy, causing pregnancy-related disorders. Recent findings have demonstrated the ability of Paslahepevirus balayani gt3 to replicate within placental cell lines, suggesting a direct effect on the placenta and fetus. To study whether zoonotic rat HEV strains possess a similar human-host placental tropism, we utilized JEG-3 cells to understand the replicative ability of an infectious clone of a recently reported strain of Rocahepevirus ratti, the LCK-3110 strain. Infectious cDNA clones of Pasla-, Avi-, and Rocahepevirus were transcribed and then, transduced into JEG-3 cells. Cells were harvested, and cell lysates were used for testing infectivity. Five days post-transfection or after inoculation onto naive HepG2/C3A cells, the cells were analyzed for infection. Replication in transduced JEG-3 cells and the infection potential in HepG2/C3A cells were assessed via an indirect immunofluorescence assay and a flow-cytometry assay. We found that the Rocahepevirus ratti LCK-3110 strain did not have efficient replication in JEG-3 cell cultures. Full article
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