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FinTech, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 10 articles

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22 pages, 6615 KiB  
Article
Fintech as a Financial Disruptor: A Bibliometric Analysis
by Ahmet F. Aysan and Zhamal Nanaeva
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 412-433; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040031 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3365
Abstract
The present-day financial system is being influenced by the rapid development of Fintech (financial technology), which comprises technologies created to improve and automate traditional forms of finance for businesses and consumers. The topic of Fintech as a financial disruptor is gaining popularity in [...] Read more.
The present-day financial system is being influenced by the rapid development of Fintech (financial technology), which comprises technologies created to improve and automate traditional forms of finance for businesses and consumers. The topic of Fintech as a financial disruptor is gaining popularity in line with the swift spread of digitalization across the banking industry, whereby this paper contributes to the field by presenting a novel bibliometric analysis of the academic literature related to Fintech as a financial disruptor. The analysis is based on metadata extracted from the Scopus database through the VOSviewer and Biblioshiny software. The bibliometric analysis of 363 documents identifies the most impactful sources of publication, keywords, authors, and most cited documents on the topic of Fintech as a financial disruptor. As our analysis demonstrates, the number of publications on the given topic is increasing, indicating both interest among academia and potential for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development in Fintech)
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13 pages, 2311 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Music Industry
by Yuechu Hu and Jong-Min Kim
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 399-411; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040030 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4388
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic ravaged the world, not only threatening people’s health but also impacting various industries. This paper will focus on the impact of the pandemic on the music industry, specifically on live and recorded music. To help determine how the COVID-19 pandemic [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic ravaged the world, not only threatening people’s health but also impacting various industries. This paper will focus on the impact of the pandemic on the music industry, specifically on live and recorded music. To help determine how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted both live and recorded music, we will analyze the log-returns of stock data of three companies representative of the music industry: Live Nation Entertainment, Tencent Music Entertainment, and Warner Music Group. We also provide descriptive statistics related to the log-returns of stock data of the three companies and calculate the correlation coefficients of the log returns for these companies using three correlation methods (Pearson correlation test, Kendall correlation test, and Spearman correlation) before and after the pandemic. From stock price charts, we observed a negative relationship between the stock indices of both live and recorded music during the early pandemic period. However, we found that there was no correlation in the log-returns of both live and recorded music company stocks after the COVID-19 vaccination became widely available, despite their being a slight positive correlation from the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Analytics and Intelligent System)
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11 pages, 792 KiB  
Systematic Review
Fintech, Digitalization, and Blockchain in Islamic Finance: Retrospective Investigation
by Ibrahim Musa Unal and Ahmet Faruk Aysan
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 388-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040029 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 9864
Abstract
The increasing interest in Fintech, Blockchain, and Digitalization in Islamic Finance created a new area in the literature, requiring a systematic review of these academic publications. The scope of the analysis is limited to journal articles to understand the trends in the indexed [...] Read more.
The increasing interest in Fintech, Blockchain, and Digitalization in Islamic Finance created a new area in the literature, requiring a systematic review of these academic publications. The scope of the analysis is limited to journal articles to understand the trends in the indexed journals. Results are categorized into three sections, Islamic banks’ digitalization, Blockchain and Crypto Assets research, and Islamic non-bank financial institutions’ digitalization. Islamic fintech has great potential mainly because of the overlapping norms of Shariah and fintech, making it easier to implement technological disruption into Islamic finance. Moreover, the trust shift to Islamic finance could be merged with the opportunities of fintech and increase the potential of Islamic fintech even more. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fintech and Sustainable Finance)
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12 pages, 618 KiB  
Article
Financial Inclusion, Fintech, and Income Inequality in Africa
by Biruk Birhanu Ashenafi and Yan Dong
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 376-387; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040028 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4639
Abstract
Financial inclusion and Fintech have revolutionized the financial sector and fundamentally changed how we store, save, borrow, transfer, and invest money. This paper investigates the impact of financial inclusion and Fintech on income inequality using waves of survey data for 2011, 2014, and [...] Read more.
Financial inclusion and Fintech have revolutionized the financial sector and fundamentally changed how we store, save, borrow, transfer, and invest money. This paper investigates the impact of financial inclusion and Fintech on income inequality using waves of survey data for 2011, 2014, and 2017 across 39 African countries. By using pooled ordinary least square and two-stage least square (2sls) estimation methods, we obtain three key findings. First, institutional factors such as political stability, control of corruption, and government effectiveness determine Fintech and financial inclusion. Second, Fintech encourages individuals to have a formal bank account, thereby promoting financial inclusion. Third, financial inclusion and Fintech exacerbate income inequality. The direct implication of our findings is that policymakers make tradeoffs whether they seek to achieve higher inclusion and Fintech or to reduce income inequality. We highlight that a pro-poor financial sector development is vital. Easing the bottleneck in obtaining loans, offering agriculture-based Fintech services, and improving digital literacy are important steps to gain the most out of inclusion and Fintech in reducing income inequality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fintech and Sustainable Finance)
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14 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Port Users’ Behavioral Intentions to Adopt Financial Technology (Fintech) in Ports in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case of Ports in Ghana
by Ahmed Antwi-Boampong, David King Boison, Musah Osumanu Doumbia, Afia Nyarko Boakye, Linda Osei-Fosua and Kwame Owiredu Sarbeng
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 362-375; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040027 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2293
Abstract
The study evaluated factors influencing port users’ intentions to participate in Financial Technology (Fintech) in the ports of Ghana. The study used non-experimental quantitative correlational design and the Extended Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) as the theoretical foundation [...] Read more.
The study evaluated factors influencing port users’ intentions to participate in Financial Technology (Fintech) in the ports of Ghana. The study used non-experimental quantitative correlational design and the Extended Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) as the theoretical foundation to assess whether performance expectancy (PE), behavioral intention (BI), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), facilitating conditions (FC), hedonic motivation (HM), price value (PV), and habit (HT) were predictors of the intention of port users to participate in a Fintech program with age as a moderating factor. The sample comprised 407 individuals who work in the port industry and are between 18 and 64 years old; these were randomly selected through the SurveyMonkey platform. The study used principal component analysis (PCA), confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling to analyze and report the results. Findings show that PE, EE, and HT were predictors of the behavioral intention of port users to participate in a Fintech in the maritime and ports in Ghana. FC, SI, HM, and PV values could not predict BI for port users to enroll on a Fintech program. Neither did age have a moderating effect on the predictors variable influence on behavioral intention. This study offers a deeper insight into the adoption of Fintech in the port industry and sub-Saharan Africa. The findings can help researchers explain the variations in the UTAUT2 theoretical framework predictions relative to different sectors and disciplines. Researchers who intend to use the UTAUT2 theoretical framework to influence port users BI to enroll in the Fintech program will now consider PE, EE, and HT the most effective adoption factors. From a practical perspective, the study will help managers and stakeholders in ports in Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa focus on the critical constructs as the first steps to implementing a Fintech program. On the other side, port users will also understand their role relative to performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and the habit to cultivate toward Fintech. Full article
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17 pages, 1216 KiB  
Article
Retail Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDC), Disintermediation and Financial Privacy: The Case of the Bahamian Sand Dollar
by Kilian Wenker
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 345-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040026 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7168
Abstract
The fast-growing, market-driven demand for cryptocurrencies worries central banks, as their monetary policy could be completely undermined. Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) could offer a solution, yet our understanding of their design and consequences is in its infancy. This non-technical paper examines how [...] Read more.
The fast-growing, market-driven demand for cryptocurrencies worries central banks, as their monetary policy could be completely undermined. Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) could offer a solution, yet our understanding of their design and consequences is in its infancy. This non-technical paper examines how The Bahamas has designed the Sand Dollar, the first real-world instance of a retail CBDC. It contrasts the Sand Dollar with definition-based specifications. The author then develops a scenario analysis to illustrate commercial bank risks. In this process, the central bank becomes a deposit monopolist, leading to high funding risks, disintermediation risks, and solvency risks for the commercial banking sector. This paper argues that restrictions and caps will be the new specifications of a regulatory framework for CBDCs if disintermediation in the banking sector is to be prevented. The anonymity of CBDCs is identified as a comparative disadvantage that will affect their adoption. These findings provide insight into governance problems facing central banks and coherently lead to the design of the Sand Dollar. This paper concludes by suggesting that combating cryptocurrencies is a task that cannot be solved by a CBDC. Full article
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20 pages, 663 KiB  
Article
Pravuil: Global Consensus for a United World
by David Cerezo Sánchez
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 325-344; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040025 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
The latest developments in blockchain technology have conceptualised very efficient consensus protocols that have not yet been able to overcome older technologies. This paper presents Pravuil, a robust, secure, and scalable consensus protocol for a permissionless blockchain suitable for deployment in an adversarial [...] Read more.
The latest developments in blockchain technology have conceptualised very efficient consensus protocols that have not yet been able to overcome older technologies. This paper presents Pravuil, a robust, secure, and scalable consensus protocol for a permissionless blockchain suitable for deployment in an adversarial environment such as the Internet. Using zero-knowledge authentication techniques, Pravuil circumvents previous shortcomings of other blockchains: Bitcoin’s limited adoption problem (as transaction demand grows, payment confirmation times grow much less than that of other PoW blockchains); higher transaction security at a lower cost; more decentralisation than other permissionless blockchains; impossibility of full decentralisation; the blockchain scalability trilemma (decentralisation, scalability, and security can be achieved simultaneously); and Sybil resistance for free implementation of the social optimum. Pravuil goes beyond the economic limits of Bitcoin and other PoW/PoS blockchains, leading to a more valuable and stable cryptocurrency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development in Fintech)
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7 pages, 433 KiB  
Communication
Models for Point-of-Sale (POS) Market Entry
by Pritham Pattamatta and Shaunak S. Dabadghao
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 318-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040024 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3599
Abstract
Point of Sale (PoS) or Buy-Now-Pay-Later (BNPL) type financing has observed a strong rise in the last decade, and accounts for about 10% of the unsecured lending market in the USA. This market is largely covered by FinTechs, and traditional financial institutions are [...] Read more.
Point of Sale (PoS) or Buy-Now-Pay-Later (BNPL) type financing has observed a strong rise in the last decade, and accounts for about 10% of the unsecured lending market in the USA. This market is largely covered by FinTechs, and traditional financial institutions are beginning to demonstrate interest in entering this market. In this short communication, we identify why the POS market is attractive and what drives its growth, examine the market participants, and illustrate the various ways in which financial institutions can enter this market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development in Fintech)
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8 pages, 1353 KiB  
Communication
Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) and Cryptocurrencies: Efficiency and Comovements
by Éder Pereira, Paulo Ferreira and Derick Quintino
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 310-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040023 - 2 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3048
Abstract
Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are a type of digital record of ownership used in a unique way: ensuring authenticity and uniqueness. Due to these characteristics, NFTs have been used in several markets: games, arts, and sports, among others. In 2020, the volume of negotiations [...] Read more.
Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are a type of digital record of ownership used in a unique way: ensuring authenticity and uniqueness. Due to these characteristics, NFTs have been used in several markets: games, arts, and sports, among others. In 2020, the volume of negotiations of the NFTs was about USD 200 million. Despite the strong interest of economic agents in operating with NFTs, there are still gaps in the literature, regarding their dynamics and price interrelation with other potentially related assets, which deserve to be studied. In this sense, the main purpose in this paper is to analyze the cross-correlation between NFTs and larger cryptocurrencies. To this end, our methodological approach is based on a Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis correlation coefficient, with a sliding windows approach. Our main finding is that the cross-correlations are not significant, except for a few cryptocurrencies, with weak significance at some moments of time. We also carried out an analysis of the long-term memory of NFTs, which demonstrated the antipersistence of these assets, with results seemingly corroborating the market inefficiency hypothesis. Our results are particularly important for different classes of investors, due to the analysis on different time scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development in Fintech)
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16 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Smart Insurance Contracts Shielding Pandemic Business Disruption in Developing Countries and Blockchain Solution
by Nada Mallah Boustani and Magnaghi Elisabetta
FinTech 2022, 1(4), 294-309; https://doi.org/10.3390/fintech1040022 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
As the Fourth Industrial Revolution gains momentum and involves a plethora of disruptive technology concepts, such as blockchain, they have infiltrated economies that have only experienced a small portion of their scope, consequences, and applications in their different branches. This research aims to [...] Read more.
As the Fourth Industrial Revolution gains momentum and involves a plethora of disruptive technology concepts, such as blockchain, they have infiltrated economies that have only experienced a small portion of their scope, consequences, and applications in their different branches. This research aims to examine the potential uses of blockchain technology within the framework of smart contracts in the insurance sector, notably in the event of a pandemic that results in business interruption. Businesses hardly ever take business interruption insurance into account, particularly in a country similar to Lebanon, where natural disasters and pandemics are scarce. Due to the complexity of the task and the numerous requirements for trust in terms of risk consistency, traditional insurance companies are not interested in offering these kinds of insurance contracts. In this current study, a quantitative study was conducted over 213 businesses in various fields and revealed acceptance and socio-demographic differences in the activity sectors of this potentially ground-breaking solution for a developing country that is undergoing a sanitary and economic crisis. As a result, smart contracts and decentralized finance (DeFi) were proposed in the current research as potential solutions to overcome the Lebanese currency devaluation and high insurance costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Technology and Its Applications in Business and Finance)
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