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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2023, ISVM 2022

The 10th International Seminar of Veterinary Medicine: Camelids in Algeria & Maghreb

Constantine, Algeria | 20–21 December 2022

Volume Editors:
Amira Leila Dib, Université Frères Mentouri Constantine 1, Algeria
Said Boukhechem, Université Frères Mentouri Constantine 1, Algeria
Hithem Bougherara, Université Frères Mentouri Constantine 1, Algeria
El-Hacene Bererhi, Université Frères Mentouri Constantine 1, Algeria

Number of Papers: 22

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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume collects articles from the contributions presented at the 10th International Seminar of Veterinary Medicine: Camelids in Algeria & Maghreb. The objective of the meeting was to [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 177 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Amira Leila Dib, Said Boukhechem, Hithem Bougherara and El-Hacene Bererhi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022001 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 747
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Biology and Life Sciences Forum, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to their peer review [...] Full article
2 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Preface of the 10th International Seminar of Veterinary Medicine: Camelids in Algeria and the Maghreb
by Amira Leila Dib, Said Boukhechem, Hithem Bougherara and El-Hacene Bererhi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022002 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 830
Abstract
This book collects articles from the contributions presented at the 10th International Seminar of Veterinary Medicine: Camelids in Algeria and the Maghreb, held in Constantine, Algeria, at Université Frères Mentouri, Constantine 1, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, on 20–21 December 2022 [...] Full article

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4 pages, 733 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Camel in Algeria: Animal of the Past, Present and Future: What Is the Scope of Farming Systems?
by Abdelhakim Senoussi, Aïcha Abazi, Saïd Bezziou and Zakaria Brahimi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022003 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1798
Abstract
In Algeria, the camel is one of the greatest riches and resource reservoirs of the Saharan territory. Compared to other farm animals, this species was relegated to the background, despite a past that testifies to a preponderant role in a hostile environment. Due [...] Read more.
In Algeria, the camel is one of the greatest riches and resource reservoirs of the Saharan territory. Compared to other farm animals, this species was relegated to the background, despite a past that testifies to a preponderant role in a hostile environment. Due to its legendary sobriety, it is the emblematic animal of the merchant caravan and is renowned for its versatility. It appears as an excellent means of locomotion, saddle, with interesting traction capacities in addition to being endowed with remarkable strength for plowing and the use of noria or delou. Today, the increase in numbers has been accompanied by changes in production systems, while the notable increase in the demand for camel products revealed by the socio-economic changes in nomadic communities, in terms of education and health, has contributed to modifying animal husbandry practices. Indeed, the emergence of new specialized camel systems has disrupted the habits that are now reflected in an increased interest in both the systems adopted and the products related to them. The future of the dromedary would be projected according to dimensions of renewal; the camel sector, local products, and camel services are many assets to consider. It is in this perspective that the present contribution, as a synthesis, attempts to highlight camel breeding in the Algerian Northern Sahara. Full article
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3 pages, 334 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Camel Breeding in Algeria
by Nassim Moula
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022004 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Camel breeding remains marginal in Algeria but represents an invaluable animal resource for desert regions. The camel is one of the few domestic species that provides milk, meat, leather, wool, manure and work. The Algerian camel herd has experienced a significant increase in [...] Read more.
Camel breeding remains marginal in Algeria but represents an invaluable animal resource for desert regions. The camel is one of the few domestic species that provides milk, meat, leather, wool, manure and work. The Algerian camel herd has experienced a significant increase in recent years, reaching a population of about 416,500 in 2019. This livestock is located in 17 Wilayates, including 8 Saharan and 9 Stepppiques. The main breeds raised in Algeria are: the Chaambi, Ouled Sidi Cheikh, Ait Khebbach, Steppe Camel, Saharaoui, Targui, Ajjer, Reguibi and Ftouh. The camel sector in Algeria is facing several constraints of a sanitary, genetic, logistical and organizational nature. The management of land and common spaces, following the sedentarization of some breeders, is another difficulty that the sheep sector must face. Several favorable factors for camel breeding in Algeria, such as the pedoclimatic diversity of the country, culture/religion, economic and genetic diversity, can help to improve Algerian red meat production. The objective of this paper is to present the current situation of camel farming in Algeria. Full article
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4 pages, 224 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Breeding and Nutrition of Camels in Algeria
by Said Boukhechem, Amira Leila Dib, Hithem Bougherara, Assia Bouaziz, Louiza Kadja, Khireddine Ghougal, Ibtissem Oubira, Zahia Chari, Nessrine Sana Kerrour, Melisa Lamri, Nedjoua Lakhdara and El-Hacene Bererhi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022005 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 988
Abstract
Among the mammals domesticated by humans for their needs, the dromedary, which is a versatile animal, is used for the production of milk, meat, wool and skin, as well as for sports, tourism and transport. However, knowledge about the breeding and feeding of [...] Read more.
Among the mammals domesticated by humans for their needs, the dromedary, which is a versatile animal, is used for the production of milk, meat, wool and skin, as well as for sports, tourism and transport. However, knowledge about the breeding and feeding of this animal is limited. The objective of this work is to synthesize previous works on the breeding and feeding of camels in Algeria. The results show that the main farming systems are transhumant, sedentary and nomadic. In addition, the diet of the dromedary is based on different types of Saharan routes and constitutes the main element upon which an extensive camel breeding system is based. Thus, for a better valorization of this species, further studies on the diet and breeding methods of camels are recommended. Full article
3 pages, 204 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Study of the Phenotypic and Molecular Genetic Diversity of “Tergui” Camel Population in the Hoggar Region (South Algeria)
by Derradji Harek, Hacene Ikhlef, Youcef Amine Cherifi, Rachid Bouhadad and Fodil Arbouche
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022006 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
In the framework of the sustainable management of the genetic diversity (morphometric and molecular) of the “Tergui” camel population represented by the phenotypes (Abahou, Amelal, Alemlagh, Atelagh, and Azerghaf), surveys in the Hoggar area of 87 individuals from 11 localities were conducted in [...] Read more.
In the framework of the sustainable management of the genetic diversity (morphometric and molecular) of the “Tergui” camel population represented by the phenotypes (Abahou, Amelal, Alemlagh, Atelagh, and Azerghaf), surveys in the Hoggar area of 87 individuals from 11 localities were conducted in order to estimate the variability of the inter-intra-population. The morphological results provide full information about the structure of this population and demonstrate an important polymorphism. The results of the genotyping of the DNA with 20 microsatellite markers made it possible to demonstrate inter- and intra-population genetic variability characterized by a high rate of heterozygosity (Hnb) and effective alleles. The rate of heterozygosity in our phenotypes varied from 0.56 to 0.63, which is higher than that observed in foreign populations ranging from 0.537 to 0.629. A total of 169 alleles of 20 microsatellite loci were detected. The mean number of alleles per locus was 7.15, 6.15, 3.10, 4.45, and 3.25 for Abahou, Amelal, Alemlagh, Atelagh, and Azerghaf, respectively. The loci evaluation showed higher PIC values greater than 0.5, which are considered very instructive. The heterozygous values observed for all the loci analyzed were lower than expected, which could be attributed to inbreeding in the population or subdivision of the studied population into distinct breeds and phenotypes. On the other hand, the number of observed alleles is higher and has shown a frequency that exceeds 7.3%. The genetic differentiation values between the phenotypes analyzed were much lower and the level of differences accounted for 1.1% of the total genetic variation. All loci contributed to this differentiation with FST values being moderately low and similar but very significant (p < 0.001). The overall FST value was similar but slightly higher than that of 0.9%. The genetic similarity between the phenotypes and the classification methods (AFC and DACP) gave results similar to the phenotypic characteristics, and showed that they appear to be genetically very similar, thereby supporting the decision to consider them only mildly differentiated. Full article
3 pages, 216 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Place of the Dromedary in the Ecological Balance of Its Saharan Ecosystem
by Abdelmadid Chehma, Hassen Mahma, Hafida Trabelsi and Johann Huguenin
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022007 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 976
Abstract
The dromedary is the only breeding species capable of adapting to the harshness of its desert environment. It manages to reproduce, making the most of the very meagre floristic resources of the Saharan ecosystem. Moreover, thanks to these adaptive faculties and its particular [...] Read more.
The dromedary is the only breeding species capable of adapting to the harshness of its desert environment. It manages to reproduce, making the most of the very meagre floristic resources of the Saharan ecosystem. Moreover, thanks to these adaptive faculties and its particular feeding behaviour, it contributes largely to the preservation and proliferation of the floristic cover of its Saharan rangelands. Indeed, an overview of studies conducted by our research team has shown that this animal lives in perfect harmony with its environment. On the one hand, it adopts a mode of ambulatory grazing that respects the balance of floristic and vegetative diversity: (1) by being very selective with regard to the species and parts of the plant; (2) by moving from one plant to another without exhaustion and without uprooting; (3) by grazing the parts of the plant (stem leaves, seeds) according to availability; (4) by managing to cover its daily needs, whatever the variations in fodder supply (linked to seasonal climatic variations); and (5) by travelling daily distances that can exceed 50 km/day, so as not to exhaust and overload restricted spaces. On the other hand, the camel, by endozoochory, could play an important role in the long-distance seed dispersal of many wild plant species, and contribute to the maintenance of the diversity and propagation of its floristic cover. After gut passage, the germination percentage of seeds with physical dormancy increases and faeces represent a significant source of organic matter that is favorable for germination and seedling growth until favorable conditions (rainfall) for their germination occur. Full article
4 pages, 1483 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cytological and Immunohistochemical Study of the Dromedary Iymph Nodes in Algeria
by Mohamed Amine Fares, Tarek Khenenou and Djallal Eddine Rahmoun
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022008 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 949
Abstract
The aim of this research is to make an investigation about the cellular population of the dromedary lymph nodes in the region of El Oued in Algeria in order to identify the cytological structure of these organs; a classic histological staining technique had [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to make an investigation about the cellular population of the dromedary lymph nodes in the region of El Oued in Algeria in order to identify the cytological structure of these organs; a classic histological staining technique had to be performed in order to identify the cellular population in each compartment of the organ. Moreover, it was necessary to make an immunohistochemical staining technique using monoclonal ant bodies in order to identify the localization of both T & B lymphocytes. The obtained results revealed that the location of both T and B lymphocytes in the dromedary’s lymph node is identical to the general organization of lymph nodes of other mammalian species. Full article
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3 pages, 519 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Contamination of Raw Camel Milk by Listeria spp. and Staphylococcus spp.
by Sara Lezzoum-Atek, Chahrazed Belhout, Hadir Bouchenafa and Leila Bouayad
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022009 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Camel milk is a valuable food choice, representing a primary need in the diet of people in dry zones. Camel milk is rich in nutrients, which makes it a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms. Staphylococcus and Listeria are significant opportunistic pathogens [...] Read more.
Camel milk is a valuable food choice, representing a primary need in the diet of people in dry zones. Camel milk is rich in nutrients, which makes it a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms. Staphylococcus and Listeria are significant opportunistic pathogens in humans, dairy cattle, and camels. The presence of these bacteria could present a potential public health issue. In the present study, 20 milk samples collected from camel farms in M’sila were investigated for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Listeria spp. Staphylococcus enumeration, and a search for Listeria spp. was performed according to the recommendations of ISO 6888-1(2004) and ISO 11290-1(2017) methods, respectively. The results show a contamination prevalence of 62% of staphylococcus spp. with an estimated average bacterial load of 2.7.102 cfu/mL, while for Listeria spp., only three samples were positive, with a prevalence of 14.28%. For each species, identification using API Listeria strips confirmed the presence of Listeria grayi, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri species, but no Listeria monocytogenes were recovered in these samples. According to the current results, we could conclude that the percentage of contamination with Staphylococcus in the tested camel milk samples was relatively high compared to the level of contamination with Listeria. There is no Algerian regulation setting microbiological criteria for raw camel milk; however, these results suggest that the hazard to the consumer cannot be excluded. Full article
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3 pages, 199 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Teeth Follow-Up throughout the Life of the Dromedary: Zootechnical and Veterinary Importance
by Mabrouk Mouldi Seddik
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022010 - 4 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
The dromedary camel is a domestic animal in arid and desert regions. Its oral cavity has evolved to allow the ingestion of desert plants, often not consumed by other species. Indeed, the teeth of this species present anatomical peculiarities specific to pseudo-ruminant animals [...] Read more.
The dromedary camel is a domestic animal in arid and desert regions. Its oral cavity has evolved to allow the ingestion of desert plants, often not consumed by other species. Indeed, the teeth of this species present anatomical peculiarities specific to pseudo-ruminant animals by their forms, their arrangements, their formulas, and their kinetics of eruption and wear. With 22 deciduous and 34 permanent teeth, including 2 incisors and 2 canines in the upper jaw and 6 incisors and 2 canines in the lower jaw, estimating the age of a dromedary remains difficult for most clinicians. This accurate age determination is very important not only for breeders and young promoters when purchasing animals but also for the clinician when performing veterinary or zootechnical examinations. This work was carried out in a herd of 70 camels belonging to the Arid Lands Institute (IRA Tunisia) and is based on a monthly and annual follow-up and examination of the morphology of the teeth (eruptions, replacements, and wear) throughout the life of the dromedary. Full article
3 pages, 222 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Valorization of Camel Meat and Meat Products in the World and in Algeria
by Hithem Bougherara, Amira Leila Dib, Said Boukhechem, Assia Bouaziz, Louiza Kadja, Khireddine Ghougal, Ibtissem Oubira, Zahia Chari, Nessrine Sana Kerrour, Melisa Lamri, Nedjoua Lakhdara and El-Hacene Bererhi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022011 - 4 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Camel meat is considered as good source of nutrition, its taste and texture are similar to that of cattle and has an amino acid content ten times higher than that of the latter. Moreover, its consumption is very low and the manufacture and [...] Read more.
Camel meat is considered as good source of nutrition, its taste and texture are similar to that of cattle and has an amino acid content ten times higher than that of the latter. Moreover, its consumption is very low and the manufacture and marketing of cameline meat products are very neglected. The objective of this work is to promote camel’s meat and the derived products from it. Thus, the industry sector should launch and invest in the production of large ranges of camel meat, in order to meet consumer demands. Full article
3 pages, 201 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Main Reasons for the Seizure of Meat and Offal in Slaughterhouses in the Region of Adrar (Algeria)
by Meriem Bouzenzana and Naima Hadjab
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022012 - 4 Apr 2023
Viewed by 991
Abstract
The main of this study is to determine the nature and frequency of the different reasons for the seizure of mean and offal in the camel compared to the other ruminants slaughtered under the same conditions. This study is a synthesis of the [...] Read more.
The main of this study is to determine the nature and frequency of the different reasons for the seizure of mean and offal in the camel compared to the other ruminants slaughtered under the same conditions. This study is a synthesis of the slaughterhouse records that are part of the activity of the veterinary inspection office of the agricultural services of the wilaya of Adrar during 2017. Camels accounted for 10.4% of the total meat produced at the slaughterhouse in 2017, after the sheep, with 77.8%. The percentage of seizures for meat in camel is 3.12%. The highest weight of seized meat is observed in sheep, with 3665 kg, then camel, with 150 kg. Traumatized meat is the predominant reason for seizures, with 3.12% (150 kg) and 81.81% (115 kg) for camel and sheep, respectively. The dromedary is in the second class for the seizure of red offal after sheep, with an estimated loss of 316.3 kg, of which 88.88% of seizures are represented by lung lesions. Pneumonia is the greatest reason for offal seizure at 1.1%, followed by pulmonary hydatidosis at 0.36%. The dominant cases lead to considerable losses of animal protein. The loss of protein in a country that lacks sufficient sources shows how worrying seizures are. Full article
3 pages, 213 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Principal Anatomy Particularities in Dromedary Compared to Ox: Digestive and Respiratory Systems
by Maya Boukerrou, Rania Ridouh, Faiza Tekkouk-Zemmouchi and Claude Guintard
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022013 - 6 Apr 2023
Viewed by 952
Abstract
The dromedary, also called the one-humped camel, can live and adapt well to the harsh and hot climate of the desert due to its functional anatomical particularities. Both the dromedary and the ox are known as artiodactyls. Anatomically, they have a few similarities [...] Read more.
The dromedary, also called the one-humped camel, can live and adapt well to the harsh and hot climate of the desert due to its functional anatomical particularities. Both the dromedary and the ox are known as artiodactyls. Anatomically, they have a few similarities but many differences. This paper aims to review the digestive and respiratory anatomy of the two species and enumerate their main particularities. The camel’s mouth is thick and unique; it helps them to be selective with regard to food and to avoid any thorny plants. The nostrils of the dromedary are slit-like, with wings that can close to ensure protection against the wind and the sand; they also have a role in the conservation of water. Contrary to the ox, the dromedary’s lungs are not lobulated, and the diaphragm has a unique structure. Unlike the bovids, camelids have only three distinct digestive chambers instead of four; there is no clear distinction between the third and fourth chambers. In addition, they have glandular sac areas called “water cells” instead of papillae in the rumen. Their liver is lobulated, and without a gall bladder. Full article
3 pages, 469 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Seasonal Variations of Intake in Male Camels on Sahara Range-Lands of Algeria
by Kaouthar Lakhdari, Tarek Boussaada and Salha Amira Benatallah
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022014 - 7 Apr 2023
Viewed by 788
Abstract
The goal of this study was to determine the seasonal and age effects on male camels’ intake. Over the two seasons (wet and dry season), follow-ups were conducted at El Alia Rangelands (southeast of Algeria). Eight males were selected to measure bite counts [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to determine the seasonal and age effects on male camels’ intake. Over the two seasons (wet and dry season), follow-ups were conducted at El Alia Rangelands (southeast of Algeria). Eight males were selected to measure bite counts and dry matter intake (DMI) per season; they were distributed into two groups, adult males (AM) and young males (YM). The results showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the number of bites according to the season and the age categories, with a maximum average of 80.33 ± 18.206 for AM in the dry season and a minimum average of 15.50 ± 9.955 for YM in the wet season. During the wet season, Traganum nudatum had the highest dry matter intake (DMI), with 2.01 kg DM for AM and 0.28 kg DM for YM, while Salsola longifolia and Salsola tetragona had the lowest, with 0.38 and 0.39 kg DM, respectively, during the dry season in YM. Limoniastrum guyonianum exhibited high amounts of dry matter intake (DMI) in the dry season, with 1.10 and 0.22 kg DM in AM and YM, respectively, but significantly decreased in AM and YM during the wet season (0.03 and 0.02 kg DM respectively). The season influences the feed intake of male camels, of course. Full article
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3 pages, 207 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Overview of Camel Biodiversity and Genetics
by Semir Bechir Suheil Gaouar and Elena Ciani
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022015 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
The process of desertification affects about 46% of Africa. Hence, the dromedary appears by far to be the most appropriate strategic investment. It is obvious that in view of global events, the number of areas that will be affected by desertification will increase [...] Read more.
The process of desertification affects about 46% of Africa. Hence, the dromedary appears by far to be the most appropriate strategic investment. It is obvious that in view of global events, the number of areas that will be affected by desertification will increase considerably, which will make this animal a key element in maintaining food security for a considerable number of people. The objective of this review is to describe what is currently being carried out in the study of the phenotypic and molecular diversity of camels and to highlight the prospects for the exploitation and use of these products in sustainable farming systems. Due to the increasing demand for camels around the world, there is a need for knowledge about their phenotypic and genetic diversity. This is fundamental to the sustainable management and use of herds. It appears through this review that the morphological and genetic diversity of African camels and the scientific advance can be used for genetic improvement and conservation. Full article
3 pages, 458 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of the CMT Test Results Carried Out on Camels and Bovines
by Brahim Bouchoucha, Noureddine Zeghilet and Omar Bouaziz
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022016 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Subclinical intra-mammary infection is a very current disease in dairy females; several early tests exist for their detection: California Mastitis Test (CMT), Electrical Conductimetry of milk (CE), pH indicator papers. In this study, the milk of 104 cows (416 quarters) was tested using [...] Read more.
Subclinical intra-mammary infection is a very current disease in dairy females; several early tests exist for their detection: California Mastitis Test (CMT), Electrical Conductimetry of milk (CE), pH indicator papers. In this study, the milk of 104 cows (416 quarters) was tested using CMT (Raidex®) to first estimate the prevalence of the disease and to identify the effect of age, stage of lactation and position of neighborhoods on its prevalence; second, we looked for data related to camels from another study carried out on 57 camels (in Algiers (ENVH), starting with the hypothesis that the camel is more resistant. The prevalence rate (CMT > 1) is around 45% for cows and 15% for quarters. The study conducted in Algiers yielded a rate of 67% (for camels and 35% for quarters, i.e., an increase of 130% for quarters and 50% for animals. Our study emphasizes the impact of the last stage of lactation compared to the first (35% vs. 15%), which is in agreement with the other study; on the other hand, the effect of the posterior position of the teats and age was contradictory. The differences between the rates were not significant at p < 0.05 between neither the animals or quarters (Chi 2: 53.24 and 71.41). Full article
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3 pages, 652 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Diaphragm Bone in Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius L., 1758): Anatomy and Investigation Using Computed Tomography Imaging
by Faiza Tekkouk-Zemmouchi, Baaissa Babelhadj, Rania Ridouh, Eric Betti, Abdelkader Adamou, Louiza Benhamza-Manssar, Archibald Poisson, Atika Benaissa, Kassem Altoama, Christian Tavernier and Claude Guintard
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022017 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1847
Abstract
The aim of this work is to provide some anatomical data using a non-invasive method. Nine entire diaphragms of adult dromedaries were collected randomly at the slaughterhouse, and the bones prepared at the anatomy laboratory of Ouargla (Algeria). The CT examinations were performed [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to provide some anatomical data using a non-invasive method. Nine entire diaphragms of adult dromedaries were collected randomly at the slaughterhouse, and the bones prepared at the anatomy laboratory of Ouargla (Algeria). The CT examinations were performed on a 16-section CT device made by Siemens (Sensation 16, dedicated to the environment and the veterinary industry by Image-ET (Mordelles, France)). This bone is flat on one side and protruding on the other. The central part of the bone has an average HU value of −176 (−684 to 88), which clearly corresponds to the cancellous bone, and the external surface of the bone has an average HU value of 2320 (1979 to 2664), which corresponds to the compact bone. This study allows us to have a better understanding of the variability and structure of the dromedary diaphragm bone. Full article
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3 pages, 233 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Dried Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Meat Contributing to Food Safety
by Youcef Rahmani and Réda Khama
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022018 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 977
Abstract
The effect of static drying on the physicochemical quality of camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat slices as driedin an oven at 65 °C, with the aim of contributing to food safety. During the experiments, meat was cutinto. 8 ± 0.2 cm thick [...] Read more.
The effect of static drying on the physicochemical quality of camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat slices as driedin an oven at 65 °C, with the aim of contributing to food safety. During the experiments, meat was cutinto. 8 ± 0.2 cm thick slices, soaked in a saline solution for 30 min, and then dried. Moisture content wasmeasured during the drying phase, and physicochemical parameters, such as protein, ash, sodium, pH, and mineral content, such as calcium (Ca), phosphor (P), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were monitored before and after drying. The colorimetric parametersof the dried samples are also measured. The results show that the physicochemical quality of the dried camelmeat meets the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Indeed, the moisture content decreased from 73.94 ± 0.51% to 13.33 ± 0.44%, and the dried food samples were characterized by increases (i) from 19.72 ± 0.30% to 50.97 ± 0.65% in protein content; (ii) from 1.115 ± 0.012% to 4.781 ± 0.047%, in ash content; (iii) from 260 ± 11.7 mg to 1690 ± 32 mg, in the sodium content (for 100 g of dry matter), and (iv) from 5.956 ± 0.087 to 6.203 ± 0.091 in pH value. However, the variation is not significant for all mineral content parameters. Finally, themean values of the colorimetric parameters of brightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) are 37.13 ± 1.64, 22.02 ± 0.72, and 7.73 ± 0.69, respectively (before drying) and they are 25.57 ± 1.56, 9.43 ± 0.78, and 3.74 ± 0.21, respectively (after drying). Full article
3 pages, 218 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Gastrointestinal Parasite Infestation of the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Southern Algeria
by Ilyes Bouasla, Meriem Mekroud, Nadjet Amina Khelifi Touhami, Madjed Dib, Housna Bouhabila, Samia Daif, Nassim Ouchene, Amal Titi and Ahmed Benakhla
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022019 - 12 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and identification of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria based on microscopic examination. A total of 46 fresh fecal samples were collected in the southern Algerian towns of [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and identification of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria based on microscopic examination. A total of 46 fresh fecal samples were collected in the southern Algerian towns of Adrar, Tindouf, Ourgla, and Ain Salah, and nine samples from camel farms in Constantine. Samples were examined with the flotation technique. Results showed an infestation rate of dromedaries of 32.6% (15/46), with seven different gastrointestinal species: 25.4% protozoa (Balantidium coli, Eimeria dromederi), 16.3% nematodes (Nematodirus spp., Trichuris spp., others strongles), and 3.6% cestodes (Moniezia spp.). Dromedaries are more infested with protozoa than with nematodes or cestodes (p < 0.05). The type of sex has no significant influence on the rate of parasitic infestation. The Sahraoui breed (70%) appears more infested compared to the Tergui breed (31.42%) (p < 0.05). Dromedaries originating from the Ouargla region (73.68%) are the most infested compared to those originating from Adrar (18.18%), Ain Salah (10%), and Tindouf (33.33%) (p < 0.05). Full article
3 pages, 611 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reproductive Troubles: Cases Report in Camels—First Caesarean in Camilidae in Algeria
by Said Fettata
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022020 - 13 Apr 2023
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Abstract
The camel is a highly valuable animal which contributes effectively to the welfare of people in difficult environments such as the Algerian Sahara. Reproduction in the camel is not as well understood as in more common species of domestic animals. Reproductive problems in [...] Read more.
The camel is a highly valuable animal which contributes effectively to the welfare of people in difficult environments such as the Algerian Sahara. Reproduction in the camel is not as well understood as in more common species of domestic animals. Reproductive problems in the camel are not researched as, for example, in the bovine and small ruminants. Our study demonstrates a clinical case in the Ghardaïa district: cesarean section in female’s camels. The incidence of camel dystocia does not differ from that of bovines. The etiologies of dystocia include uterine torsion, carpal flexion, lateral deviation of the head and hock and hip flexion of the fetus. However, the camel fetus survives dystocia better than the equine fetus, and the camel is a good subject for cesarean section. Cesarean section could be performed on the left flank using xylazine sedation and local regional or infiltration anesthesia. A camel, 17 h in dystocia, delivered a live fetus via cesarean section. The camel placenta is diffuse epitheliochorial type, and placental retention subsequent to parturition is rare. The camel placenta is expelled within 49 min to 6 h of calving. Full article
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4 pages, 1651 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Histological Variations in the Uterine Mucosa during the Postpartum Period in Camels (Camelus dromedarius)
by Rabah Kelanemer, Djallel Adel, Hocine Ziam, Bachir Medrouh, Amina Saidi, Yasmine Rahmoune, Naima Dellal and Said Fettata
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022021 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
This work aims to determine the main histological changes in the endometrium of female camels during the postpartum period (recovered from the uterine epithelium). For this, successive samples of uterine mucosa were taken from the left uterine horn of females from the 3rd, [...] Read more.
This work aims to determine the main histological changes in the endometrium of female camels during the postpartum period (recovered from the uterine epithelium). For this, successive samples of uterine mucosa were taken from the left uterine horn of females from the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 15th, 18th, and 21st postpartum day. The samples of the uterine biopsies were carried out on 10 camels. In this study, it appears that the recovery of the epithelium of the uterine endometrium is short (3 weeks) and comparable to that of mares. In conclusion, this study verified the hypothesis of short uterine involution in camels and the rapid resumption of ovarian activity. Full article
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5 pages, 220 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Use of a Natural Product “Camel Milk” as a Regulator of Glycemia
by Louiza Kadja, Assia Bouaziz and Amira Leila Dib
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 22(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023022022 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 945
Abstract
In many countries around the world, camel milk is a healthy food used to treat many health issues including diabetes. Thus, it has been demonstrated from several studies in vivo that the consumption of camel milk either fresh or fermented could have a [...] Read more.
In many countries around the world, camel milk is a healthy food used to treat many health issues including diabetes. Thus, it has been demonstrated from several studies in vivo that the consumption of camel milk either fresh or fermented could have a positive effect on certain diseases and metabolic disorders such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Furthermore, lactic cultures from camel milk have also been tested for the action of some active proteins or probiotic and have shown encouraging results. The objective of this work is to synthesize the data related to the benefits of camel milk and its effect on the regulation of glycemia. More in-depth studies should be carried out on humans, in order to confirm the effect of camel milk on glycemia. Full article
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