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Tour. Hosp., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In July 2018, during the peak tourist season, the waste management system in Corfu collapsed due to its high dependence on landfilling. A crisis was declared, driven by the significant amount of waste left uncollected on the streets of the island. This manuscript aims to explore the effect of ineffective waste management on the island’s image as a tourist destination based on the experiences of local tourist stakeholders. For the primary data collection of this case study, a qualitative research method was chosen. We concluded that proper solid waste management is an essential part of sustaining the organic image of a destination and enhances the perception of a place as a sustainable destination. View this paper
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12 pages, 60345 KiB  
Article
Geoheritage Threats in South African National Parks
by Khodani Matshusa and Llewellyn Leonard
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 202-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010012 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
The uniqueness and potential of South African geoheritage to contribute to sustainable development is undoubtedly unmatched. However, little is known about the geoheritage threats in South Africa because geoheritage research is geographically skewed to the global North, while little focus is given to [...] Read more.
The uniqueness and potential of South African geoheritage to contribute to sustainable development is undoubtedly unmatched. However, little is known about the geoheritage threats in South Africa because geoheritage research is geographically skewed to the global North, while little focus is given to the global South. This study characterises the geoheritage threats in South Africa through a qualitative method design. This involved qualitative semi-structured interviews with 16 key informants (from the South African National Parks, national government, local communities as well tour operators, and tourism agencies). Consequently, qualitative content analysis was performed to outline geoheritage threats in South African national parks. The study concludes that the construct of geoheritage threats consists of human- and nature-induced threats. The identified human-induced geoheritage threats include mining, damage to heritage, and loss of biodiversity due to overcrowding. Furthermore, results showed that incorrect management of geoheritage has the potential to cause community conflicts, which can lead to a decrease in tourists visiting the destination. The identified nature-induced geoheritage threats are climate change, floods, and fires. These results suggest the need for the immediate protection of geoheritage sites within and outside protected area in South Africa. Thus, it is necessary to develop protection strategies to conserve South African geoheritage for current and future generations that involve protection areas managers, local communities, government departments and agencies, and academia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geotourism: The Tourism of Geology and Landscape)
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15 pages, 20096 KiB  
Article
Emerging Venue Considerations for Event Management: The Case of Ireland
by Domhnall Melly, Emmet McLoughlin and Kelly Maguire
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 187-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010011 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3778
Abstract
Event venues represent a focal point for infectious disease transmission among attendees and event stakeholders, creating lasting uncertainty within the industry post-COVID-19. There is now a need to investigate emerging venue considerations for the event industry as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. [...] Read more.
Event venues represent a focal point for infectious disease transmission among attendees and event stakeholders, creating lasting uncertainty within the industry post-COVID-19. There is now a need to investigate emerging venue considerations for the event industry as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using Ireland as a case, a quantitative questionnaire was used on a sample of event managers. Event venue monitoring for COVID-19 is lacking, while risk mitigation procedures focus more on attendees already at the venue rather than avoiding infected persons entering the venue. Risk assessments now comprise COVID-19 risk; however, a lack of resources means regular health and safety has shown signs of weakening. Government and local authority resources and financial support are required. Pre-venue procedures of symptom screening and proof of vaccination, combined with venue procedures for disinfection of venue spaces, table service, and appropriate ventilation have proven to be effective COVID-19 risk mitigation procedures. Additionally, ICT (information and communications technology) could disseminate up-to-date health guidelines through customer-centric digital environments representing enhanced information sharing to avoid uncertainty and support pro-social intentions of event attendees and compliance with event venue COVID-19 risk mitigation procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Models and Paradigms for Future Festival and Events)
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25 pages, 3798 KiB  
Article
Production of a Tourist Space and Territorial Governance Regime in French Guiana (Guyane Française)—The Challenges of Touristification in the Peripheral Territory of Haut-Maroni
by Luc Renaud and Bruno Sarrasin
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 162-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010010 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
This article focuses on the processes of territorialization of the local population’s living space, created by the governance regime in French Guiana, and their effects on the production of a tourist space in the context of sparsely populated regions. The Guiana Amazonian Park [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the processes of territorialization of the local population’s living space, created by the governance regime in French Guiana, and their effects on the production of a tourist space in the context of sparsely populated regions. The Guiana Amazonian Park is analyzed as a territorialization agent with mechanisms that influence the development of tourism in the Maripasoula/Haut-Maroni zone. Our objective is to use the territorial framework to better understand the political and geographical dynamics that exist between the processes of the global production of tourist areas and those related to the local population’s management of the living space. Using Critical political geography framework, this study is based on documentary research and on 15 semi-directed interviews, conducted during a month-long stay in 2019, with different groups of stakeholders involved directly or indirectly in tourist activities. The paper first outlines the regional and local context of tourism in French Guiana. It also offers a territorial description of the different inclusion criteria for Sparsely Populated Regions in the Maripasoula/Haut-Maroni region, which is linked to the specific tourist practices in this territory. The processes of territorialization are then analyzed through the different governance regimes the French state created in order to understand how they fit into the production of a tourist space. Finally, a reflection on the future of tourism in this region is proposed, particularly regarding colonial governance regimes vis-à-vis Indigenous populations in the region. Our analysis demonstrates that tourism, along with any other form of activity to be developed in Maripasoula/Haut-Maroni territory, will be systematically confronted with the same structural constraints that have helped to reproduce the dynamics of territorial dispossession since the establishment of a colonial regime in the region. Full article
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14 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Discourses of Fear in Online News Media: Implications for Perceived Risk of Travel
by Kelley A. McClinchey and Frederic Dimanche
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 148-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010009 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2982
Abstract
This paper analyzes the role of Canadian online news media in framing travel during the pandemic. The article applies Altheide’s concept of the problem frame to reflect how news media contribute to the emergence of a highly rationalized problem that, in turn, generates [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the role of Canadian online news media in framing travel during the pandemic. The article applies Altheide’s concept of the problem frame to reflect how news media contribute to the emergence of a highly rationalized problem that, in turn, generates a discourse of fear. While the impacts of COVID-19 on tourism have been extensively examined within tourism scholarship, less attention has been devoted to the impact of news media. Because travel and the pandemic are heavily intertwined, discourse analysis can help process media narratives, furthering our understanding of their role in influencing perceived risk of travel. A critical discourse analysis of over 100 online news articles was conducted using thematic analysis to uncover themes in Canadian media sources and to explore how the media have framed travel during the pandemic. The role of online news media in promoting fear was communicated through the themes of anxiety, antitrust, avoidance, and animosity. The role of the media in producing the problem frame in the context of travel was examined as well as its implications for perceived travel risk and tourism demand. The power dynamics between media, government, and the citizens it serves are also discussed. Full article
7 pages, 739 KiB  
Editorial
What Makes a Good Critical Literature Review Paper?
by Brian Garrod
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 141-147; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010008 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3747
Abstract
Literature review papers are highly influential in directing academic discourse, not only because they map the state of the art in a subject area, but also because they show future research prospects by identifying weaknesses, limitations, and gaps in the extant body of [...] Read more.
Literature review papers are highly influential in directing academic discourse, not only because they map the state of the art in a subject area, but also because they show future research prospects by identifying weaknesses, limitations, and gaps in the extant body of knowledge on a particular subject [...] Full article
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50 pages, 44177 KiB  
Article
Post-Pandemic Lessons for Destination Resilience and Sustainable Event Management: The Complex Learning Destination
by Jesse Carswell, Tazim Jamal, Seunghoon Lee, Donna Lee Sullins and Kelly Wellman
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 91-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010007 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5245
Abstract
This paper aims to share post-pandemic lessons for destination resilience and the sustainability of events. It offers a new perspective that reimagines the space and place of events as learning destinations enmeshed in complex systems. Complexity arises due to the interactions and interrelationships [...] Read more.
This paper aims to share post-pandemic lessons for destination resilience and the sustainability of events. It offers a new perspective that reimagines the space and place of events as learning destinations enmeshed in complex systems. Complexity arises due to the interactions and interrelationships between numerous stakeholders, activities, and events in the social–ecological destination system, where boundaries are porous, and issues and actions from afar can impact the local community. The case presented here describes the micro-level activities and actions undertaken to engage with destination resilience and sustainable event management and certification at a learning destination in Texas, USA. These situated efforts are shown (i) at the campus-wide level for the university and (ii) with the collaborative, learning-oriented activities undertaken by students in event management classes to pilot test the Sustainable Event Certification Checklist that was developed. They corroborate the general characteristics and criteria of the complex learning destination summarized in the paper, along with identifying and discussing the skills, literacies, and lessons learned to advance destination resilience and the sustainability of events. Participants in the learning destination draw on practical knowledge and develop soft skills to engage in adaptive planning proactively and collaboratively with other stakeholders to address emergent challenges and practical problems in the complex destination and sustainable event domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Models and Paradigms for Future Festival and Events)
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16 pages, 3033 KiB  
Review
Cultural Integration and Rural Tourism Development: A Scoping Literature Review
by Muyan Tang and Hongzhang Xu
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 75-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010006 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7565
Abstract
Rural tourism plays an increasing role in maintaining sustainable rural development. Integrating culture into rural tourism is multifaceted. Local communities have often been regarded as homogeneous, and different voices within them are selectively presented or re-interpreted by those in power. A better understanding [...] Read more.
Rural tourism plays an increasing role in maintaining sustainable rural development. Integrating culture into rural tourism is multifaceted. Local communities have often been regarded as homogeneous, and different voices within them are selectively presented or re-interpreted by those in power. A better understanding of how and why cultures are integrated into rural tourism is urgently needed. This paper aims to investigate (1) the aims and motives of tourism managers to integrate cultural concepts into rural tourism; (2) who has participated in the cultural integration process; and (3) how cultures have been integrated into rural tourism. Based on a scoping literature review, we found that cultures could add more attractions, such as historical heritage, artwork, cultural landscape, customs, food, and language, to the natural landscape and bring more tourists to rural areas. However, integrating cultures into rural tourism is not always successful. Conflicts of interest among different stakeholders are also often found. Some of the worst cases of cultural integration have even destroyed the original natural landscape and local cultures. While cultural integration is complicated, injustice and perverse effects do not have to be a consequence of integrating cultures into rural tourism. Multi-way communication among tourism providers, managers, and consumers can mitigate disruptive outcomes and unlock positive social outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Tourism)
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24 pages, 523 KiB  
Article
Festival Participation, Inclusion and Poverty: An Exploratory Study
by Karen Davies, Mary Beth Gouthro, Nic Matthews and Victoria Richards
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 51-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010005 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4007
Abstract
Music festivals (in the UK) have the potential to enhance the quality of life of attendees and participants, and therefore it might be argued they should be accessible to all. However, the barriers to participation that some may face when seeking to access [...] Read more.
Music festivals (in the UK) have the potential to enhance the quality of life of attendees and participants, and therefore it might be argued they should be accessible to all. However, the barriers to participation that some may face when seeking to access and engage with festival experiences can often be attributed to the issue of marginalisation due to poverty. Utilising the three discourses of social inclusion put forward by Levitas as a framework, the study explores what UK music festival organisations are doing and could do to make their events more accessible to people living in poverty. Through an analysis of a series of festival websites and semi-structured interviews with festival organisers, some of the financial considerations that can influence participation and act as a barrier to making festivals an inclusive aspect of our cultural life were identified, and solutions were explored. The paper found that despite the social benefits of attending, those living in poverty have become an increasingly marginalised group of festival goers as a result of the disproportional rise in costs associated with attendance, which often goes beyond only the ticket price to include hidden extras. Whilst several festivals undertake outreach work and donate to charitable organisations, only a handful have specific initiatives that improve access for those living in poverty beyond spreading out the price of the ticket via instalments and volunteering opportunities. Findings suggest whilst many music festivals are starting to recognise the importance of the issue, few have specific initiatives but are willing to consider what they can do moving forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Models and Paradigms for Future Festival and Events)
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13 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Impact of Waste Management on a Destination′s Image: A Stakeholders′ Perspective
by Aglaia-Spyridoula Koliotasi, Konstadinos Abeliotis and Paris-Georgios Tsartas
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 38-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010004 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 9992
Abstract
The present manuscript describes a case study on the viewpoints of tourism stakeholders on the effect of waste management on a destination′s image. In particular, the study aims to analyze the problems that arose during the summer of 2018 in the touristic image [...] Read more.
The present manuscript describes a case study on the viewpoints of tourism stakeholders on the effect of waste management on a destination′s image. In particular, the study aims to analyze the problems that arose during the summer of 2018 in the touristic image of Corfu because of the waste management on the island. The qualitative method approach through interviews was used to collect the primary data of the survey; online sources were used to collect data to review similar cases. All the stakeholders agree that waste management during the summer of 2018 negatively affected the image of Corfu as a touristic destination. Moreover, based on the interviews′ findings, there is a lack of political will, infrastructure, and information provision from the local authorities on the island of Corfu. Interviews also indicated that an integrated solution to the problem of waste management on the island is the implementation of source separation in households and tourism-related firms with the support of the local authorities. The contribution of this paper is towards identifying the effect that waste management has on the image of a tourist destination. It is the first of its kind conducted in Greece and among the few reported in the literature focusing on the viewpoints of service providers. Full article
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2 pages, 263 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Tourism and Hospitality in 2022
by Tourism and Hospitality Editorial Office
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 36-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010003 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
15 pages, 467 KiB  
Review
Research on Outsourcing by Hotel Firms: Current State and Future Directions
by Tomás F. Espino-Rodríguez
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 21-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010002 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4800
Abstract
This article aims to analyse the current state of hotel outsourcing research and where it should go in the future. Research on outsourcing is increasingly present in the hospitality literature. This paper reviews published works on hotel outsourcing. However, the research still seems [...] Read more.
This article aims to analyse the current state of hotel outsourcing research and where it should go in the future. Research on outsourcing is increasingly present in the hospitality literature. This paper reviews published works on hotel outsourcing. However, the research still seems to be limited to traditional topics and aspects, and it is necessary to define a new concept of outsourcing that reflects the new trends in tourism company management. Outsourcing has to be more sustainable and, therefore, contribute to the sustainable performance of the hotel, and it has to be related to other current topics in the hospitality literature. This reflection builds on the research conducted to date and proposes topics for current and future research. The paper proposes where outsourcing research should be heading, based on current research. The outsourcing of the future should be sustainable, consider its impact on the quality of service for end customers, facilitate the development of Industry 4.0, support innovation, and contribute to making the hotel more resilient. This paper on the direction hotel outsourcing research should take is the first critical examination of outsourcing, and it incorporates novel factors related to the new environmental management Full article
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20 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
The Development of a Regional Tourism Destination Competitiveness Measurement Instrument
by Tanya Rheeders and Daniel F Meyer
Tour. Hosp. 2023, 4(1), 1-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp4010001 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
The importance of the tourism sector has been highlighted and featured in various studies indicating not only the economic but also social and environmental benefits. There is a need for a measurement instrument for regional tourism destination competitiveness. This measurement instrument could gauge [...] Read more.
The importance of the tourism sector has been highlighted and featured in various studies indicating not only the economic but also social and environmental benefits. There is a need for a measurement instrument for regional tourism destination competitiveness. This measurement instrument could gauge a destination’s regional potential for tourism development and competitiveness; and be able to compare regions. To conduct an instrument development and validation, both PLS-SEM for confirmatory factor analysis and SPSS were utilised for exploratory factor analysis. A purposive sampling approach were used for both study areas, Sedibeng and Fezile Dabi district municipal regions, in which pilot studies were executed through a survey between July to September 2020. The reliability of the measurement instrument was confirmed with Cronbach’s Alpha (α) for both samples having a value above 0.70. The EFA confirmed the validity of the measurement instrument for the three-dimension and 16-items of the measurement instrument. This study recommends using the measurement instrument as a practical tool to analyse regions regarding the development and competitiveness of a tourism destination compared to other destinations. Full article
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