Previous Issue
Volume 4, June
 
 

Gases, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 4 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Experimental Optimization of Natural Gas Injection Timing in a Dual-Fuel Marine Engine to Minimize GHG Emissions
by Luigi De Simio, Luca Marchitto, Sabato Iannaccone, Vincenzo Pennino and Nunzio Altieri
Gases 2024, 4(3), 191-204; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4030011 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Phased injection of natural gas into internal combustion marine engines is a promising solution for optimizing performance and reducing harmful emissions, particularly unburned methane, a potent greenhouse gas. This innovative practice distinguishes itself from continuous injection because it allows for more precise control [...] Read more.
Phased injection of natural gas into internal combustion marine engines is a promising solution for optimizing performance and reducing harmful emissions, particularly unburned methane, a potent greenhouse gas. This innovative practice distinguishes itself from continuous injection because it allows for more precise control of the combustion process with only a slight increase in system complexity. By synchronizing the injection of natural gas with the intake and exhaust valve opening and closing times while also considering the gas path in the manifolds, methane release into the atmosphere is significantly reduced, making a substantial contribution to efforts to address climate change. Moreover, phased injection improves the efficiency of marine engines, resulting in reduced overall fuel consumption, lower fuel costs, and increased ship autonomy. This technology was tested on a single-cylinder, large-bore, four-stroke research engine designed for marine applications, operating in dual-fuel mode with diesel and natural gas. Performance was compared with that of the conventional continuous feeding method. Evaluation of the effect on equivalent CO2 emissions indicates a potential reduction of up to approximately 20%. This reduction effectively brings greenhouse gas emissions below those of the diesel baseline case, especially when injection control is combined with supercharging control to optimize the air–fuel ratio. In this context, the boost pressure in DF was reduced from 3 to 1.5 bar compared with the FD case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions from Combustion Sources)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6104 KiB  
Article
Real Driving Emissions—Event Detection for Efficient Emission Calibration
by Sascha Krysmon, Johannes Claßen, Marc Düzgün and Stefan Pischinger
Gases 2024, 4(3), 174-190; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4030010 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 299
Abstract
The systematic analysis of measurement data allows a large amount of information to be obtained from existing measurements in a short period of time. Especially in vehicle development, many measurements are performed, and large amounts of data are collected in the process of [...] Read more.
The systematic analysis of measurement data allows a large amount of information to be obtained from existing measurements in a short period of time. Especially in vehicle development, many measurements are performed, and large amounts of data are collected in the process of emission calibration. With the introduction of Real Driving Emissions Tests, the need for targeted analysis for efficient and robust calibration of a vehicle has further increased. With countless possible test scenarios, test-by-test analysis is no longer possible with the current state-of-the-art in calibration, as it takes too much time and can disregard relevant data when analyzed manually. In this article, therefore, a methodology is presented that automatically analyzes exhaust measurement data in the context of emission calibration and identifies emission-related critical sequences. For this purpose, moving analyzing windows are used, which evaluate the exhaust emissions in each sample of the measurement. The detected events are stored in tabular form and are particularly suitable for condensing the collected measurement data to a required amount for optimization purposes. It is shown how different window settings influence the amount and duration of detected events. With the example used, a total amount of 454 events can be identified from 60 measurements, reducing 184,623 s of measurements to a relevant amount of 12,823 s. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 550 KiB  
Review
Carbon Market for Climate Projects in Russia: An Overview of Nature-Based and Technological Carbon Offsets
by Tatiana Nevzorova
Gases 2024, 4(3), 153-173; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4030009 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Climate projects can become one of the key tools for decarbonization in Russia. They have powerful potential in terms of solving the problems of reducing emissions and increasing the absorption of greenhouse gases, as well as monetization potential for businesses. Despite the geopolitical [...] Read more.
Climate projects can become one of the key tools for decarbonization in Russia. They have powerful potential in terms of solving the problems of reducing emissions and increasing the absorption of greenhouse gases, as well as monetization potential for businesses. Despite the geopolitical crisis and sanctions imposed on Russia, certain opportunities for implementing climate projects have remained accessible. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current status, including the regulations and approved methodologies, prospects, and challenges for climate projects in the carbon market in Russia. It also offers an overview of international carbon market mechanisms and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the nature-based and technological solutions of climate projects for carbon sequestration. This, in turn, can facilitate the realization of future strategies for realizing the bigger potential of Russian climate projects in the domestic and international carbon markets. This research also provides up-to-date data on the current situation of the carbon market in Russia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 12268 KiB  
Article
Morphology Behavior of Polysulfone Membranes Made from Sustainable Solvents
by Steven Kluge, Karla Hartenauer and Murat Tutuş
Gases 2024, 4(3), 133-152; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4030008 - 25 Jun 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
In a previous study, we demonstrated a change in membrane morphology and gas separation performance by varying the recipe of a casting solution based on polysulfone in a certain solvent system. Although all results were reproducible, all used solvents were harmful and not [...] Read more.
In a previous study, we demonstrated a change in membrane morphology and gas separation performance by varying the recipe of a casting solution based on polysulfone in a certain solvent system. Although all results were reproducible, all used solvents were harmful and not sustainable. In this study, the solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) are replaced by the more sustainable solvents 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2M-THF), N-butyl pyrrolidinone (NBP) and cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME). The gas permeation performance and, for the first time, morphology of the membranes before and after solvent replacement were determined and compared by single gas permeation measurements and SEM microscopy. It is shown that THF can be replaced by 2M-THF and NBP without decreasing the gas permeation performance. With CPME replacing THF, no membranes were formed. Systems with 2M-THF as a THF alternative showed the best gas permeation results. Permeances for the tested gases oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) were 5.91 × 10−2, 8.84 × 10−3, 4.00 × 10−1 and 1.00 × 10−2 GPU, respectively. Permselectivities of those membranes for the gas pairs O2/N2, CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 were 6.7, 38.3 and 34.0, respectively. When also replacing DMAc in the solvent system, no or only porous membranes were obtained, even if the precipitation procedure was adjusted. These findings indicate that a complete replacement of the solvent system without affecting the membrane morphology or gas permeation performance is not possible. By varying the temperature of the precipitation bath, the formation of mechanically stable PSU membranes is possible only if THF is replaced by 2M-THF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processes for Decarbonisation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop