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Eng, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ecodesigning electronics consists in anticipating and reducing the environmental impacts generated during their lifecycle from their manufacturing processes, passing through usage(s) until end of life for multiple scenarios. The paper describes how power electronics engineers can include, in their design process, the environmental impacts of their life cycle. Results show that the mission profile in power electronics is impactful on ecodesign optimization. The approach, developed at G2Elab and G-SCOP, UGA France, is applied on an HF transformer and integrates the whole converter characteristics. View this paper
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18 pages, 2002 KiB  
Article
Evolutionary Priority-Based Dynamic Programming for the Adaptive Integration of Intermittent Distributed Energy Resources in Low-Inertia Power Systems
by Pavlos Nikolaidis and Andreas Poullikkas
Eng 2021, 2(4), 643-660; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040041 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
The variability and uncertainty caused by the increased penetrations of renewable energy sources must be properly considered in day-ahead unit commitment, optimal power flow, and even real-time economic dispatch problems. Besides achieving minimum cost, modern generation schedules must satisfy a larger set of [...] Read more.
The variability and uncertainty caused by the increased penetrations of renewable energy sources must be properly considered in day-ahead unit commitment, optimal power flow, and even real-time economic dispatch problems. Besides achieving minimum cost, modern generation schedules must satisfy a larger set of different complex constraints. These account for the generation constraints in the presence of renewable generation, network constraints affected by the distributed energy resources, bilateral contracts enclosing independent capacity provision, ancillary power auctions, net-metering and feed-in-tariff prosumers, and corrective security actions in sudden load variations or outage circumstances. In this work, a new method is presented to appropriately enhance the integration of distributed energy resources in low-inertia power grids. Based on optimal unit commitment schedules derived from priority-based dynamic programming, the potential of increasing the renewable capacity was examined, performing simulations for different scenarios. To ameliorate the expensive requirement of computational complexity, this approach aimed at eliminating the increased exploration-exploitation efforts. On the contrary, its promising solution relies on the evolutionary commitment of the next optimum configuration based on priority-list schemes to accommodate the intermittent generation progressively. This is achieved via the collection of mappings that transform many-valued clausal forms into satisfiability equivalent Boolean expressions. Full article
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11 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Evaluating and Enhancing Iron Removal via Filterable Iron Precipitates Formation during Coal-Waste Bioleaching
by Prasenjit Podder, Zongliang Zhang, Rick Q. Honaker, Michael L. Free and Prashant K. Sarswat
Eng 2021, 2(4), 632-642; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040040 - 8 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
Iron removal via jarosite precipitate formation is a commonly used technique in various hydrometallurgical processes. Excess iron removal often becomes essential to an overall metal recovery circuit. This is particularly important to processes involving iron-bearing minerals. A technique, which involved the use of [...] Read more.
Iron removal via jarosite precipitate formation is a commonly used technique in various hydrometallurgical processes. Excess iron removal often becomes essential to an overall metal recovery circuit. This is particularly important to processes involving iron-bearing minerals. A technique, which involved the use of pyrite to generate acid for leaching, for iron removal is critical to enabling the process. Iron removal using CaO or similar reagents is expensive and often results in lost product. In the present study, various compounds that facilitate jarosite formation, namely Na2SO4, NH4OH, KCl, and KOH, were utilized and their effect in precipitation was observed. Visual Minteq assisted simulations were run in order to evaluate favorable conditions for iron removal. Morphology and elemental composition of precipitates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the phase purity was identified using X-ray diffraction analysis. Full article
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12 pages, 3827 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional TID Hardening Design for 14 nm Node SOI FinFETs
by Peng Lu, Can Yang, Yifei Li, Bo Li and Zhengsheng Han
Eng 2021, 2(4), 620-631; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040039 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3174
Abstract
The fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) has been the mainstream technology on the VLSI platform since the 22 nm node. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) FinFET, featuring low power consumption, superior computational power and high single-event effect (SEE) resistance, shows advantages in integrated circuits for space [...] Read more.
The fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) has been the mainstream technology on the VLSI platform since the 22 nm node. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) FinFET, featuring low power consumption, superior computational power and high single-event effect (SEE) resistance, shows advantages in integrated circuits for space applications. In this work, a rad-hard design methodology for SOI FinFETs is shown to improve the devices’ tolerance against the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect. Since the fin height direction enables a new dimension for design optimization, a 3D Source/Drain (S/D) design combined with a gate dielectric de-footing technique, which has been readily developed for the 14 nm node FinFETs, is proposed as an effective method for SOI FinFETs’ TID hardening. More importantly, the governing mechanism is thoroughly investigated using fully calibrated technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations to guide design optimizations. The analysis demonstrates that the 3D rad-hard design can modulate the leakage path in 14 nm node n-type SOI FinFETs, effectively suppress the transistors’ sensitivity to the TID charge and reduce the threshold voltage shift by >2×. Furthermore, the rad-hard design can reduce the electric field in the BOX region and lower its charge capture rate under radiation, further improving the transistor’s robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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12 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Sub-Critical Fluid Extraction of the Essential Oil of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) with That of Hydrodistillation
by David Mc Gaw and Rosemarie Skeene
Eng 2021, 2(4), 608-619; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040038 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a spice plant grown in the tropics that contains both an essential oil and an oleoresin. The essential oil is important as a flavouring and has pharmaceutical properties, while the oleoresin is bright yellow in colour and [...] Read more.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a spice plant grown in the tropics that contains both an essential oil and an oleoresin. The essential oil is important as a flavouring and has pharmaceutical properties, while the oleoresin is bright yellow in colour and has medicinal properties. The essential oil has traditionally been extracted by hydrodistillation/steam distillation with the total extract being extracted by solvent extraction and more recently by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The objective of the work described in this paper was to investigate the possibility of extracting the essential oil using sub-critical fluid extraction and to compare it with hydrodistillation. The experiments using hydrodistillation showed that unpeeled fresh turmeric was the preferred raw material, giving an oil yield of ≈6% dry weight basis, which is similar to that reported in the literature. The experimental programme on the extraction of the oil from dried unpeeled turmeric was carried out over a temperature range from 25 to 30 °C and pressures from 65 to 71 bar. Yields were generally higher than hydrodistillation (up to ≈9% dry weight basis) as were the compositions of the extracted oils. The preferred operating conditions were determined to be 25 °C temperature and 65 bar pressure. Curcumin, the major component of the oleoresin, was not found in the oil, thereby demonstrating that the sub-critical extract is a pure essential oil. It is suggested that consideration be given to evaluating an SFE process whereby the essential oil is initially fully extracted under sub-critical fluid extraction conditions, after which the oleoresin is extracted separately by raising the pressure to ≈250 bar. Full article
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16 pages, 2206 KiB  
Article
Optimal Hybridization of Conventional ICE Vehicles
by Zhemin Hu, Ramin Tafazzoli Mehrjardi, Lin Lai and Mehrdad Ehsani
Eng 2021, 2(4), 592-607; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040037 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2714
Abstract
Most commercially available hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drivetrains are made of small internal combustion (IC) engines and large electric drives to improve fuel economy. They usually have higher cost than the conventional IC-engine-based vehicles because of the high costs of the electric drives. [...] Read more.
Most commercially available hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drivetrains are made of small internal combustion (IC) engines and large electric drives to improve fuel economy. They usually have higher cost than the conventional IC-engine-based vehicles because of the high costs of the electric drives. This paper proposes a hybridized powertrain composed of the original full-size engine of the vehicle and a universally optimum size parallel electric drive. The dynamic programming (DP) algorithm was used to obtain the sensitivity of the maximum miles per gallon (MPG) values versus the power rating of the electric drive. This sensitivity was then analyzed to determine the optimal window of the electric drive power ratings. This was proven to be universal for all passenger cars of various masses and engine powers. The fuel economy and vehicle performance of this HEV was compared with those of the 2019 Toyota Corolla, a conventional IC-engine-based vehicle, and the 2019 Toyota Prius, a commercially available HEV. The results showed that the proposed universally optimized HEV powertrain achieved better fuel economy and vehicle performance than both the original ICE and HEV vehicles, at low additional vehicle cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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30 pages, 23643 KiB  
Article
LMI-Based State Feedback Control Structure for Resolving Grid Connectivity Issues in DFIG-Based WT Systems
by Muhammad Arif Sharafat Ali
Eng 2021, 2(4), 562-591; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040036 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
Pertaining to the connectivity issues in wind power plants with grids, this study introduces an efficient mechanism based on a state feedback control structure to establish a fast and stable grid connection for a wind-driven doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). Owing to a direct [...] Read more.
Pertaining to the connectivity issues in wind power plants with grids, this study introduces an efficient mechanism based on a state feedback control structure to establish a fast and stable grid connection for a wind-driven doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). Owing to a direct link through stator windings, a DFIG is significantly vulnerable to grid disturbances and experiences sizable inrush currents when connected to the power grid. The proposed control structure is designed based on a linear matrix inequality stabilization criterion, which is framed using a suitable Lyapunov candidate function. The control objective is to ensure that the stator voltage can exponentially converge to the grid voltage, accounting for balanced and unbalanced grid conditions. This is achieved by generating appropriate rotor voltage references for rotor-side converter control. This study also explores the capability of the proposed control structure to enhance the system’s robustness to external disturbances and uncertain parametric variations. Simulations confirmed the effectiveness and suitability of the developed structure in mitigating the adverse effects of the rapid onset of the grid voltage at the stator terminals of the DFIG under various grid conditions; the proposed structure could thus establish a reliable connection with negligible effects on the DFIG and the grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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18 pages, 3554 KiB  
Article
Eco-Dimensioning Approach for Planar Transformer in a Dual Active Bridge (DAB) Application
by Glauber de Freitas Lima, Boubakr Rahmani, Maud Rio, Yves Lembeye and Jean-Christophe Crebier
Eng 2021, 2(4), 544-561; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040035 - 9 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3365
Abstract
Power electronics converters are traditionally designed regarding efficiency, power density, cost, and reliability figures of merit. Today, with the extreme spread of power electronic applications in our modern societies, together with the earth limits in terms of materials resources, it is important to [...] Read more.
Power electronics converters are traditionally designed regarding efficiency, power density, cost, and reliability figures of merit. Today, with the extreme spread of power electronic applications in our modern societies, together with the earth limits in terms of materials resources, it is important to consider the ecological impact of the converter not only during its usage, but over its whole life cycle. This article introduces an eco-dimensioning methodology for analyzing and accounting for the energy consumption over the entire converter life. The analysis is applied on a small DC-DC converter considering the main components dual active bridge (DAB) converter. The planar transform is one of the key elements modeled in this article, including material and manufacturing conditions. The traditional and eco-dimensioning approaches are carried out and compared in order to emphasize the possible consequences on total energy cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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13 pages, 1012 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Available Components and Performance Estimation of Optical Multi-Band Systems
by Dimitris Uzunidis, Fotini Apostolopoulou, Gerasimos Pagiatakis and Alexandros Stavdas
Eng 2021, 2(4), 531-543; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040034 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
Optical multi-band (OMB) systems exploit the low-loss spectrum of the single mode fiber (SMF) and are key enablers to increase the transportation capacity and node connectivity of already deployed systems. The realization of OMB systems is mainly based on the technological advances on [...] Read more.
Optical multi-band (OMB) systems exploit the low-loss spectrum of the single mode fiber (SMF) and are key enablers to increase the transportation capacity and node connectivity of already deployed systems. The realization of OMB systems is mainly based on the technological advances on the component and system level, and for this purpose, a broad gamut of various structural elements, such as transceivers, amplifiers, filters, etc. have been commercialized already or are close to commercialization. This wide range of options, which aid in unlocking the concurrent transmission in all amplification bands, is reviewed here for the first time, whilst their pros and cons as well as their limitations are discussed. Furthermore, the needs for additional components in order to fully exploit the ≈390 nm low-loss wavelength range of SMF, which spans from 1260 to 1650 nm, are highlighted. Finally, based on a physical layer formalism, which incorporates the impact of the most important physical layer constraints for an OMB system, the attainable capacity and transparent reach of each amplification band are quantified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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19 pages, 3692 KiB  
Article
Selective Recovery of Copper from a Synthetic Metalliferous Waste Stream Using the Thiourea-Functionalized Ion Exchange Resin Puromet MTS9140
by Alex L. Riley, Christopher P. Porter and Mark D. Ogden
Eng 2021, 2(4), 512-530; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040033 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3111
Abstract
The extraction of Cu from mixed-metal acidic solutions by the thiourea-functionalized resin Puromet MTS9140 was studied. Despite being originally manufactured for precious metal recovery, a high selectivity towards Cu was observed over other first-row transition metals (>90% removal), highlighting a potential for this [...] Read more.
The extraction of Cu from mixed-metal acidic solutions by the thiourea-functionalized resin Puromet MTS9140 was studied. Despite being originally manufactured for precious metal recovery, a high selectivity towards Cu was observed over other first-row transition metals (>90% removal), highlighting a potential for this resin in base metal recovery circuits. Resin behaviour was characterised in batch-mode under a range of pH and sulphate concentrations and as a function of flow rate in a fixed-bed setup. In each instance, a high selectivity and capacity (max. 32.04 mg/g) towards Cu was observed and was unaffected by changes in solution chemistry. The mechanism of extraction was determined by XPS to be through reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) rather than chelation. Elution of Cu was achieved by the use of 0.5 M–1 M NaClO3. Despite effective Cu elution (82%), degradation of resin functionality was observed, and further detailed through the application of IC analysis to identify degradation by-products. This work is the first detailed study of a thiourea-functionalized resin being used to selectively target Cu from a complex multi-metal solution. Full article
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11 pages, 5235 KiB  
Article
Human Body Specific Absorption Rate Reduction Employing a Compact Magneto-Dielectric AMC Structure for 5G Massive-MIMO Applications
by Reza Karimian, Mansoor Dashti Ardakani, Shahrokh Ahmadi and Mona Zaghloul
Eng 2021, 2(4), 501-511; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040032 - 4 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2825
Abstract
A compact artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure for the application of specific absorption rate (SAR) reduction is presented in this paper. A magneto-dielectric (MD) structure as a host of AMC substrate is used to miniaturize the AMC size. The magneto-dielectric has been designed [...] Read more.
A compact artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure for the application of specific absorption rate (SAR) reduction is presented in this paper. A magneto-dielectric (MD) structure as a host of AMC substrate is used to miniaturize the AMC size. The magneto-dielectric has been designed with a low-profile spiral loop in a way to have a high permittivity and permeability for the desired center frequency of 3.5 GHz. Simulation results confirm the zero-degree reflection phase of the proposed AMC unit cell. Moreover, a 70% reduction has been achieved in comparison to the conventional AMC. To validate the simulation results, a prototype of the board is fabricated and measured with a coplanar waveguide (CPW) antenna for the reflection coefficient. The measurement results display an excellent agreement with the simulation ones. A VOXEL model of a human body is utilized to determine the SAR value of the proposed structure. Considering the maximum SAR value for an average of 10 g human tissue, more than 70% SAR reduction is verified for the CPW antenna with the recommended MD-AMC structure compared to a conventional single CPW antenna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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9 pages, 1990 KiB  
Article
Estimating Mean Surface Backscatter from GPM Surface Backscatter Observations
by Stephen L. Durden
Eng 2021, 2(4), 492-500; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040031 - 3 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1928
Abstract
The radar on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission observes precipitation at 13.6 GHz (Ku-band) and 35.6 GHz (Ka-band) and also receives echoes from the earth’s surface. Statistics of surface measurements for non-raining conditions are saved in a database for later use in [...] Read more.
The radar on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission observes precipitation at 13.6 GHz (Ku-band) and 35.6 GHz (Ka-band) and also receives echoes from the earth’s surface. Statistics of surface measurements for non-raining conditions are saved in a database for later use in estimating the precipitation path-integrated attenuation. Previous work by Meneghini and Jones (2011) showed that while averaging over larger latitude/longitude bins increase the number of samples, it can also increase sample variance due to spatial inhomogeneity in the data. As a result, Meneghini and Kim (2017) proposed a new, adaptive method of database construction, in which the number of measurements averaged depends on the spatial homogeneity. The purpose of this work is to re-visit previous, single-frequency results using dual-frequency data and optimal interpolation (kriging). Results include that (1) temporal inhomogeneity can create similar results as spatial, (2) Ka-band behavior is similar to Ku-band, (3) the Ku-/Ka-band difference has less spatial inhomogeneity than either band by itself, and (4) kriging and the adaptive method can reduce the sample variance. The author concludes that finer spatial and temporal resolution is necessary in constructing the database for single frequencies but less so for the Ku-/Ka-band difference. The adaptive approach reduces sample standard deviation with a relatively modest computational increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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12 pages, 2832 KiB  
Article
Vacuum Balloon–A 350-Year-Old Dream
by Andrey Akhmeteli and Andrew V. Gavrilin
Eng 2021, 2(4), 480-491; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040030 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 6337
Abstract
The centuries-old idea of a lighter-than-air vacuum balloon has not materialized yet as such structure needs to be both light enough to float in the air and strong enough to withstand atmospheric pressure. We propose a design of a rigid spherical sandwich shell [...] Read more.
The centuries-old idea of a lighter-than-air vacuum balloon has not materialized yet as such structure needs to be both light enough to float in the air and strong enough to withstand atmospheric pressure. We propose a design of a rigid spherical sandwich shell and demonstrate that it can satisfy these stringent conditions with commercially available materials, such as boron carbide ceramic and aluminum alloy honeycomb. A finite element analysis was employed to demonstrate that buckling can be prevented in the proposed structure. Also discussed are other modes of failure and approaches to manufacturing. Full article
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12 pages, 3233 KiB  
Article
The Application of Food-Grade Chemical Treatment and Its Effect on the Mechanical Performance Characteristics of Ham Nets
by Md. Al-Amin, Charles Freeman, Wes Schilling, Catherine Black, Yan Li Campbell, Wenjie Shao, Santanu Kundu and Anandavalli Varadajan
Eng 2021, 2(4), 468-479; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040029 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
This study involves the use of food-grade chemicals in the integrated pest management of dry-cured ham through the use of 100% polyester weft knitted mesh nets, an idea that was derived from a previously published study in the literature. Tubular mesh nets that [...] Read more.
This study involves the use of food-grade chemicals in the integrated pest management of dry-cured ham through the use of 100% polyester weft knitted mesh nets, an idea that was derived from a previously published study in the literature. Tubular mesh nets that are used to contain dry-ageing hams, commonly referred to as ham nets, were treated with a patent-pending food-grade chemical solution (40% Propylene Glycol + 1% Propylene Glycol Alginate + 1% Carrageenan) to control ham mites. Both treated and untreated ham nets were compared for mechanical performance characteristics based on the following standards: abrasion resistance (ASTM D4966), elastic recovery (BS EN 14704-1:2005), breaking strength (ASTM D5034-09), and bursting strength (ASTM D3786). The results indicate that the chemical treatment had minimal to no impact on the mechanical performance characteristics of ham nets. The obtained SEM images also showed no negative effect on the fiber morphology due to the applied chemical solution. The findings support the use of treated ham nets to increase the end-use functionality and provide ham producers an option for integrated pest management without compromising mechanical performance needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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14 pages, 1036 KiB  
Review
A Critical Look at the Need for Performing Multi-Hazard Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants
by Egemen M. Aras and Mihai A. Diaconeasa
Eng 2021, 2(4), 454-467; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040028 - 10 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3536
Abstract
Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is one of the technologies that is used to inform the design, licensing, operation, and maintenance activities of nuclear power plants (NPPs). A PRA can be performed by considering the single hazard (e.g., earthquake, flood, high wind, landslide) or [...] Read more.
Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is one of the technologies that is used to inform the design, licensing, operation, and maintenance activities of nuclear power plants (NPPs). A PRA can be performed by considering the single hazard (e.g., earthquake, flood, high wind, landslide) or by considering multi-hazards (e.g., earthquake and tsunami, high wind and internal fire). Single hazard PRA was thought sufficient to cover the analysis of a severe accident until the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in 2011. Since then, efforts were made to consider multi-hazards as well; thus, multi-hazard PRAs are starting to be seen as being indispensable for NPPs. In addition to the changing frequency of global and local natural hazards, other reasons to be highlighted are that the number and diversity of NPPs will probably increase. Moreover, advanced reactors are close to becoming a reality by designing them with passive safety systems, smaller, standardized, and even transportable to make them cheaper across the design, licensing construction, and operation stages. Thus, multi-hazards should be addressed in any future full-scope PRA. Although we found a few studies discussing multi-hazards, a general framework for multi-hazard PRA is still missing. In this paper, we argue that the starting point for any multi-hazard PRA general framework should be the Advanced Non-LWR Licensing Basis Event Selection (LBE) Approach and Probabilistic Risk Assessment Standard for Non-Light Water Reactor (non-LWR) Nuclear Power Plants. For Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), history has shown us the path forward before, with Three Mile Accident being seen as one milestone to understand the necessity of PRA. The Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident is another milestone in the development of PRA, showing the need for performing multi-hazard PRA for the current and future NPPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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19 pages, 5437 KiB  
Article
An Investigation into Current Sand Control Testing Practices for Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Production Wells
by Omar Kotb, Mohammad Haftani and Alireza Nouri
Eng 2021, 2(4), 435-453; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040027 - 8 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3039
Abstract
Sand control screens (SCD) have been widely installed in wells producing bitumen from unconsolidated formations. The screens are typically designed using general rules-of-thumb. The sand retention testing (SRT) technique has gained attention from the industry for the custom design and performance assessment of [...] Read more.
Sand control screens (SCD) have been widely installed in wells producing bitumen from unconsolidated formations. The screens are typically designed using general rules-of-thumb. The sand retention testing (SRT) technique has gained attention from the industry for the custom design and performance assessment of SCD. However, the success of SRT experimentation highly depends on the accuracy of the experimental design and variables. This work examines the impact of the setup design, sample preparation, near-wellbore stress conditions, fluid flow rates, and brine chemistry on the testing results and, accordingly, screen design. The SRT experiments were carried out using the replicated samples from the McMurray Formation at Long Lake Field. The results were compared with the test results on the original reservoir samples presented in the literature. Subsequently, a parametric study was performed by changing one testing parameter at a test, gradually making the conditions more comparable to the actual wellbore conditions. The results indicate that the fluid flow rate is the most influential parameter on sand production, followed by the packing technique, stress magnitude, and brine salinity level. The paper presents a workflow for the sand control testing procedure for designing the SCD in the steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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19 pages, 2409 KiB  
Article
Homogenization Method to Calculate the Stiffness Matrix of Laminated Composites
by Mohamad Abbas Kaddaha, Rafic Younes and Pascal Lafon
Eng 2021, 2(4), 416-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2040026 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5132
Abstract
New analytical models have been developed for predicting equivalent Young’s and shear moduli of laminate composites. Sets of procedures and calculations are presented in order to obtain equivalent properties in all levels, lamina and laminate. An ultimate path to predict the mechanical properties [...] Read more.
New analytical models have been developed for predicting equivalent Young’s and shear moduli of laminate composites. Sets of procedures and calculations are presented in order to obtain equivalent properties in all levels, lamina and laminate. An ultimate path to predict the mechanical properties of laminated composites on the perspective of the material, orientation, and thickness has been developed. By calculating the mechanical properties using Chamis model then an Objectif function with five norms, these norms allow the mechanical properties to be examined and the ultimate answer to be predicted. Another model discusses an alternative concept of equivalent lamina elements (ELEs) by first using Chamis model for hybrid composites. Next, the ELEs are laminated in the direction and integrated into the compliance matrix for each ply. In addition, four new Generalization models for equivalence in thickness and in angle are presented in this paper. The analytical results are validated against other developed models in published articles as well as experimental results. Numerical case studies were conducted to assess the precision of results from the suggested models. The results demonstrated the capability and efficiency of the presented models for predicting the mechanical properties of multi-layer/multi-material laminate composites under different orientation conditions. Full article
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