Understanding the complex dynamics of a household’s livelihood and potential vulnerabilities in the face of climate change is challenging. This research paper considers the Shyamnagar sub-district in the southern part of Bangladesh to analyze the complex issues of the vulnerability of livelihoods in the face of climate change. We conducted a questionnaire survey (n = 156) of approximately 15.6% of households in the study area. Consequently, we collected Geographical Information System (GIS) data and satellite imagery to demonstrate the land-use changes concerning vulnerabilities. A total of 54 indicators were selected to assess the livelihood vulnerability index, considering the demographic profiles, livelihood strategies, social networks, food security, water security, income, physical infrastructures, access to health services, and impacts of natural disasters. The results of the study demonstrate that only 21% of the people in the studied regions are less vulnerable to livelihood impacts in the face of climate change, while 23% of the households remain the most vulnerable. Moreover, inadequate social networks and inefficient livelihood strategies are contributing the most to the household vulnerability indices. Interestingly, the impacts of natural disasters remain the same for the whole study area and endure similarly when assessing household vulnerability. Finally, the study reveals that decision-makers may formulate effective adaptation policies to safeguard people and their livelihoods in the time of unprecedented climatic conditions in this unique area of Bangladesh.