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Physics, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): One of the most original predictions of general relativity is the coupling between gravity and any physical entity described by a stress–energy tensor. In this picture, even quantum fields should warp space–time and be affected by its curvature. Nonetheless, the interaction between quantum fields and gravity is still debated and the gravitational interaction of the quantum vacuum energy has not yet been observed. Archimedes is an experiment designed to measure the weight of the vacuum, i.e., the coupling of vacuum energy with gravity. Using a specifically designed high-precision cryogenic balance, we will measure the weight of a multi-layered superconductive crystal. In such a system, the Casimir energy of the electromagnetic vacuum can be modulated, triggering the superconductive phase transition.View this paper.
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38 pages, 681 KiB  
Review
Fifty Years of the Dynamical Casimir Effect
by Viktor Dodonov
Physics 2020, 2(1), 67-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2010007 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 98 | Viewed by 9529
Abstract
This is a digest of the main achievements in the wide area, called the Dynamical Casimir Effect nowadays, for the past 50 years, with the emphasis on results obtained after 2010. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Quantum Vacuum)
18 pages, 364 KiB  
Review
Saga of Superfluid Solids
by Vyacheslav I. Yukalov
Physics 2020, 2(1), 49-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2010006 - 7 Feb 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4800
Abstract
The article presents the state of the art and reviews the literature on the long-standing problem of the possibility for a sample to be at the same time solid and superfluid. Theoretical models, numerical simulations, and experimental results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Statistical Physics and Nonlinear Phenomena)
15 pages, 5968 KiB  
Article
The Dynamical Casimir Effect in a Dissipative Optomechanical Cavity Interacting with Photonic Crystal
by Satoshi Tanaka and Kazuki Kanki
Physics 2020, 2(1), 34-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2010005 - 7 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4878
Abstract
We theoretically study the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE), i.e., parametric amplification of a quantum vacuum, in an optomechanical cavity interacting with a photonic crystal, which is considered to be an ideal system to study the microscopic dissipation effect on the DCE. Starting from [...] Read more.
We theoretically study the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE), i.e., parametric amplification of a quantum vacuum, in an optomechanical cavity interacting with a photonic crystal, which is considered to be an ideal system to study the microscopic dissipation effect on the DCE. Starting from a total Hamiltonian including the photonic band system as well as the optomechanical cavity, we have derived an effective Floquet–Liouvillian by applying the Floquet method and Brillouin–Wigner–Feshbach projection method. The microscopic dissipation effect is rigorously taken into account in terms of the energy-dependent self-energy. The obtained effective Floquet–Liouvillian exhibits the two competing instabilities, i.e., parametric and resonance instabilities, which determine the stationary mode as a result of the balance between them in the dissipative DCE. Solving the complex eigenvalue problem of the Floquet–Liouvillian, we have determined the stationary mode with vanishing values of the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues. We find a new non-local multimode DCE represented by a multimode Bogoliubov transformation of the cavity mode and the photon band. We show the practical advantage for the observation of DCE in that we can largely reduce the pump frequency when the cavity system is embedded in a narrow band photonic crystal with a bandgap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Quantum Vacuum)
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2 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Physics in 2018 and 2019
by Physics Editorial Office
Physics 2020, 2(1), 32-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2010004 - 22 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1826
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
10 pages, 1075 KiB  
Article
On the Non-Local Surface Plasmons’ Contribution to the Casimir Force between Graphene Sheets
by Yan Francescato, Simon R. Pocock and Vincenzo Giannini
Physics 2020, 2(1), 22-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2010003 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 2987
Abstract
Herein we demonstrate the dramatic effect of non-locality on the plasmons which contribute to the Casimir forces, with a graphene sandwich as a case study. The simplicity of this system allowed us to trace each contribution independently, as we observed that interband processes, [...] Read more.
Herein we demonstrate the dramatic effect of non-locality on the plasmons which contribute to the Casimir forces, with a graphene sandwich as a case study. The simplicity of this system allowed us to trace each contribution independently, as we observed that interband processes, although dominating the forces at short separations, are poorly accounted for in the framework of the Dirac cone approximation alone, and should be supplemented with other descriptions for energies higher than 2.5 eV. Finally, we proved that distances smaller than 200 nm, despite being extremely relevant to state-of-the-art measurements and nanotechnology applications, are inaccessible with closed-form response function calculations at present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Quantum Vacuum)
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8 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
QED Response of the Vacuum
by Gerd Leuchs, Margaret Hawton and Luis L. Sánchez-Soto
Physics 2020, 2(1), 14-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2010002 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5046
Abstract
We present a new perspective on the link between quantum electrodynamics (QED) and Maxwell’s equations. We demonstrate that the interpretation of the electric displacement vector D = ε 0 E , where E is the electric field vector and ε 0 is the [...] Read more.
We present a new perspective on the link between quantum electrodynamics (QED) and Maxwell’s equations. We demonstrate that the interpretation of the electric displacement vector D = ε 0 E , where E is the electric field vector and ε 0 is the permittivity of the vacuum, as vacuum polarization is consistent with QED. A free electromagnetic field polarizes the vacuum, but the polarization and magnetization currents cancel giving zero source current. The speed of light is a universal constant, while the fine structure constant, which couples the electromagnetic field to matter runs, as it should. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Quantum Vacuum)
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13 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
Progress in a Vacuum Weight Search Experiment
by Saverio Avino, Enrico Calloni, Sergio Caprara, Martina De Laurentis, Rosario De Rosa, Tristano Di Girolamo, Luciano Errico, Gianluca Gagliardi, Marco Grilli, Valentina Mangano, Maria Antonietta Marsella, Luca Naticchioni, Giovanni Piero Pepe, Maurizio Perciballi, Gabriel Pillant, Paola Puppo, Piero Rapagnani, Fulvio Ricci, Luigi Rosa, Carlo Rovelli, Paolo Ruggi, Naurang L. Saini, Daniela Stornaiuolo, Francesco Tafuri and Arturo Tagliacozzoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Physics 2020, 2(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2010001 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4532
Abstract
We present the status of the art of the Archimedes experiment, devoted to measuring the debated interaction of quantum vacuum fluctuations and gravity. The method is essentially the weighing of the transition energy of a layered superconductor where the contribution of vacuum energy [...] Read more.
We present the status of the art of the Archimedes experiment, devoted to measuring the debated interaction of quantum vacuum fluctuations and gravity. The method is essentially the weighing of the transition energy of a layered superconductor where the contribution of vacuum energy to the transition energy is expected to be relevant. The transition is obtained by modulating the temperature of the superconducting sample at a frequency of about 10 mHz and the expected change of weight is measured with a suitably designed high sensitivity cryogenic beam balance. In this paper, we present an overview of the experiment, discussing the expected signal to be measured, and presenting in particular the result of a prototype balance operated in our present laboratory. In the frequency range of the measurement, the sensitivity is affected mainly by seismic, thermal, sensor, and control noise. We discuss these points showing in particular the design of the cryogenic apparatus, the final balance, and the quiet seismic site that will host the final measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Quantum Vacuum)
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