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Open AccessArticle

Interface Science Using Ambient Pressure Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

1
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin, Germany
2
Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
3
School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Pudong, Shanghai 201210, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Surfaces 2019, 2(1), 78-99; https://doi.org/10.3390/surfaces2010008
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Surface Science: Basics and Applications)
The development of novel in situ/operando spectroscopic tools has provided the opportunity for a molecular level understanding of solid/liquid interfaces. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy using hard X-rays is an excellent interface characterization tool, due to its ability to interrogate simultaneously the chemical composition and built-in electrical potentials, in situ. In this work, we briefly describe the “dip and pull” method, which is currently used as a way to investigate in situ solid/liquid interfaces. By simulating photoelectron intensities from a functionalized TiO2 surface buried by a nanometric-thin layer of water, we obtain the optimal photon energy range that provides the greatest sensitivity to the interface. We also study the evolution of the functionalized TiO2 surface chemical composition and correlated band-bending with a change in the electrolyte pH from 7 to 14. Our results provide general information about the optimal experimental conditions for characterizing the solid/liquid interface using the “dip and pull” method, and the unique possibilities offered by this technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: in situ ambient pressure XPS; hard X rays; photoelectron simulations; solid/liquid interface; TiO2; APTES in situ ambient pressure XPS; hard X rays; photoelectron simulations; solid/liquid interface; TiO2; APTES
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Favaro, M.; Abdi, F.F.; Crumlin, E.J.; Liu, Z.; van de Krol, R.; Starr, D.E. Interface Science Using Ambient Pressure Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Surfaces 2019, 2, 78-99.

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