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Potential Dependent Structure and Stability of Cu(111) in Neutral Phosphate Electrolyte

Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE, UK
School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham. Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Surfaces 2019, 2(1), 145-158;
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Surface Science: Basics and Applications)
PDF [2009 KB, uploaded 24 February 2019]


Copper and copper oxide electrode surfaces are suitable for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 and produce a range of products, with the product selectivity being strongly influenced by the surface structure of the copper electrode. In this paper, we present in-situ surface X-ray diffraction studies on Cu(111) electrodes in neutral phosphate buffered electrolyte solution. The underlying mechanism of the phosphate adsorption and deprotonation of the (di)-hydrogen phosphate is accompanied by a roughening of the copper surface. A change in morphology of the copper surface induced by a roughening process caused by the formation of a mixed copper–oxygen layer could also be observed. The stability of the Cu(111) surface and the change of morphology upon potential cycling strongly depends on the preparation method and history of the electrode. The presence of copper islands on the surface of the Cu(111) electrode leads to irreversible changes in surface morphology via a 3D Cu growth mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cu(111); electrochemical interface; in-situ X-ray diffraction Cu(111); electrochemical interface; in-situ X-ray diffraction

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Grunder, Y.; Beane, J.; Kolodziej, A.; Lucas, C.A.; Rodriguez, P. Potential Dependent Structure and Stability of Cu(111) in Neutral Phosphate Electrolyte. Surfaces 2019, 2, 145-158.

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