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Reports, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 11 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This report summarizes 10 seminars for disaster-related infectious diseases (DRID). Tropical infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, dengue, and malaria are typical DRID. Galectin-9 was found to be a severity marker for DRID. Of the 28 pathogens that became a hot topic, 14 are RNA viruses. Of the 10 seminars, the last 2 targeted only COVID-19. It was emphasized that COVID-19 is not just a disaster-related infection but a disaster itself. TCZ therapy against COVID-19 was presented. How to recharge resilience against the disaster was also discussed. Conducting continuous seminars should also be aimed not only at natural disasters but also at measures against disasters caused by human-made disasters such as wars. View this paper
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5 pages, 1202 KiB  
Case Report
Spontaneous Post-COVID-19 Pneumothorax in a Patient with No Prior Respiratory Tract Pathology: A Case Report
by Vladimir Grigorov, Mladen Grigorov, Evgeni Grigorov and Hristina Nocheva
Reports 2022, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010011 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
Spontaneous pneumothorax in the setting of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has been first described as an unlikely complication, mainly occurring in critically ill patients or as a consequence of mechanical ventilation. We report a case with COVID-19 pneumonia followed by a spontaneous pneumothorax [...] Read more.
Spontaneous pneumothorax in the setting of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has been first described as an unlikely complication, mainly occurring in critically ill patients or as a consequence of mechanical ventilation. We report a case with COVID-19 pneumonia followed by a spontaneous pneumothorax in a young non-smoker without any predisposing pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Two-Year Pandemic)
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14 pages, 89878 KiB  
Case Report
Ameloblastoma in a Three-Year-Old Child with Hurler Syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I)
by Mattia Di Bartolomeo, Arrigo Pellacani, Sara Negrello, Martina Buchignani, Riccardo Nocini, Gianluca Di Massa, Greta Gianotti, Giuseppe Pollastri, Giacomo Colletti, Luigi Chiarini and Alexandre Anesi
Reports 2022, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010010 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5362
Abstract
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a family of genetic diseases associated with a deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase, which causes a lack of catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Therefore, the accumulation of GAGs determines a wide spectrum of symptoms, typically found in a few syndromes like Hurler [...] Read more.
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a family of genetic diseases associated with a deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase, which causes a lack of catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Therefore, the accumulation of GAGs determines a wide spectrum of symptoms, typically found in a few syndromes like Hurler syndrome (HS). Among other specific manifestations, craniofacial abnormalities are crucial for the characterization of this syndrome. Ameloblastoma is a rare, benign, slow-growing, odontogenic tumor usually located in the mandible. Clear risk factors for the development of ameloblastoma remain unknown, but black patients have a fivefold increased risk. Clinically, it is characterized by a painless, variable-sized jaw swelling. Although classified as a benign tumor, ameloblastoma often has a severe clinical outcome. The most common type of ameloblastoma is the solid/multicystic/conventional one. A computed tomography scan (CT) with and without contrast is the gold standard for evaluating this kind of neoplasia. Conservative or radical surgery is the mainstay of treatment. In this case report, we described an unusual clinical assessment of conventional ameloblastoma interesting the posterior left mandible of a 35-month-old child affected by HS. This case represented a suggestive challenge both from a diagnostic and a therapeutic point of view. The patient was disease-free at 2 years’ follow-up. Full article
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5 pages, 1507 KiB  
Case Report
Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation: Updated Report of a Case with Literature Review
by Hoang-Long Nguyen, Manh-Hung Do, Hoang-Long Vo and Bao-Tien L. Nguyen
Reports 2022, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010009 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 3066
Abstract
Intradural lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease. The mechanism by which a herniated disc tears the dura matter remains unknown. The preoperative diagnosis of an intradural lumbar disc herniation is still difficult. We report our experience dealing with a [...] Read more.
Intradural lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease. The mechanism by which a herniated disc tears the dura matter remains unknown. The preoperative diagnosis of an intradural lumbar disc herniation is still difficult. We report our experience dealing with a case of intradural lumbar disc herniation at level L3/4 in a 34-year-old man. Based on current experience, we found that attachment of the ventral dura to the posterior longitudinal ligament can be a favorable factor indicating intradural lumbar disc herniation. One should pay attention to those with cauda equina syndrome, as it can thereby promptly suggest a preoperative diagnosis of intradural lumbar disc herniation. Surgeons need to avoid omitting intraoperative lesions by palpating the dura mater during surgery for suspected tumor cases. Full article
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7 pages, 1395 KiB  
Case Report
A Case of Recent Liver Injury Induced by Benzbromarone
by Tomotaka Ishii, Keijiro Hoshino, Masayuki Honda, Yoichiro Yamana, Reina Sasaki-Tanaka, Mariko Kumagawa, Shini Kanezawa, Taku Mizutani, Naoki Matsumoto, Ryota Masuzaki, Kazushige Nirei, Hiroaki Yamagami, Mitsuhiko Moriyama and Tatsuo Kanda
Reports 2022, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010008 - 8 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2274
Abstract
A 39-year-old male had a stomachache for 10 days before abnormal liver function tests were detected by a local doctor. Then, he was referred to us and admitted to our hospital for examination and treatment of elevated transaminases. He had taken benzbromarone to [...] Read more.
A 39-year-old male had a stomachache for 10 days before abnormal liver function tests were detected by a local doctor. Then, he was referred to us and admitted to our hospital for examination and treatment of elevated transaminases. He had taken benzbromarone to treat his hyperuricemia for seven months, and we diagnosed him with benzbromarone-induced liver injury. After the termination of benzbromarone, he finally recovered from his illness. There are several reports about benzbromarone-induced liver injury. In conclusion, as periodic liver function tests seem not to be completely performed, clinicians should regularly monitor liver function tests in patients taking benzbromarone. Full article
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13 pages, 1066 KiB  
Review
Seminar Lessons: Infectious Diseases Associated with and Causing Disaster
by Toshio Hattori, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Shin Koga, Yasutake Yanagihara and Issei Tanaka
Reports 2022, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010007 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3582
Abstract
Disasters such as the magnitude-9 Great East Japan Earthquake occur periodically. We considered this experience while developing measures against a predicted earthquake in the Nankai Trough. This report includes a summary of 10 disastrous infectious diseases for which a countermeasures seminar was held. [...] Read more.
Disasters such as the magnitude-9 Great East Japan Earthquake occur periodically. We considered this experience while developing measures against a predicted earthquake in the Nankai Trough. This report includes a summary of 10 disastrous infectious diseases for which a countermeasures seminar was held. Thirty-five speakers from twenty-one organizations performed the lectures. Besides infectious diseases, conference topics also included disaster prevention and mitigation methods. In addition, the development of point-of-care tests, biomarkers for diagnosis, and severity assessments for infectious diseases were introduced, along with epidemics of infectious diseases affected by climate. Of the 28 pathogens that became a hot topic, 17 are viruses, and 14 out of these 17 (82%) are RNA viruses. Of the 10 seminars, the last 2 targeted only COVID-19. It was emphasized that COVID-19 is not just a disaster-related infection but a disaster itself. The first seminar on COVID-19 provided immunological and epidemiological knowledge and commentary on clinical practices. During the second COVID-19 seminar, vaccine development, virological characteristics, treatment of respiratory failure, biomarkers, and human genetic susceptibility for infectious diseases were discussed. Conducting continuous seminars is important for general infectious controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Two-Year Pandemic)
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4 pages, 506 KiB  
Case Report
A Reminder of an Important Clinical Lesson: Hypoxaemia in a Pleural Effusion
by Avinash Aujayeb
Reports 2022, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010006 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 7095
Abstract
A 75-year-old male presented with a large pleural effusion and significant hypoxaemia. The hypoxaemia persisted after large-volume pleural drainage, and this prompted further investigations. A CT scan yielded a pleural malignancy and a large pulmonary embolus, which was responsible for the hypoxaemia. We [...] Read more.
A 75-year-old male presented with a large pleural effusion and significant hypoxaemia. The hypoxaemia persisted after large-volume pleural drainage, and this prompted further investigations. A CT scan yielded a pleural malignancy and a large pulmonary embolus, which was responsible for the hypoxaemia. We revisit the mechanisms behind dyspnoea and hypoxaemia in pleural effusions, and underly the need to investigate further should hypoxaemia persist after adequate drainage. Full article
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17 pages, 627 KiB  
Article
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Its Association to Cardiovascular Risk Factors in an Italian Adult Population Cohort
by Brigitta Buttari, Rachele Riganò, Luigi Palmieri, Cinzia Lo Noce, Stefan Blankenberg, Tanja Zeller, Serena Vannucchi, Anna Di Lonardo, Marco Gabbianelli and Chiara Donfrancesco
Reports 2022, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010005 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5643
Abstract
Abnormal sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and sex hormone concentrations are the cause or the consequence of cardiometabolic diseases, however, the clinical correlates of SHBG is clearly less understood. In our study we investigate sex- and age-specific serum SHBG levels and their association with [...] Read more.
Abnormal sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and sex hormone concentrations are the cause or the consequence of cardiometabolic diseases, however, the clinical correlates of SHBG is clearly less understood. In our study we investigate sex- and age-specific serum SHBG levels and their association with cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors and high-risk conditions in an adult cohort of Italian population. Data from 1176 men and 2236 women, aged 20–81 were analyzed and serum SHBG determined in stored samples using an immunoassay. SHBG concentrations, higher in women than in men in the younger age groups, exhibited a curvilinear increase with age in men and a U-shaped curve across the lifespan in women, with a decrease from the 2nd to the 6th decade of age and an increase after the 6th decade when SHBG concentrations were similar in both sexes. Low SHBG serum levels correlated with the traditional CVR factors diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, whereas high level of SHBG correlated with cholesterol HDL. These associations were more numerous in women than in men, in whom decreased with age. The sex- and age specific differences observed in our population-based cohort should be considered in establishing reference ranges and clinical cut-off points to improve CVR score charts and therapeutic approaches. Full article
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2 pages, 130 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Reports in 2021
by Reports Editorial Office
Reports 2022, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010004 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
8 pages, 617 KiB  
Case Report
High-Intensity, Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field as an Odd Treatment in a Patient with Mixed Foot Ulcer: A Case Report
by Roberta Roberti, Gianmarco Marcianò, Alessandro Casarella, Vincenzo Rania, Caterina Palleria, Lucia Muraca, Rita Citraro, Giovambattista De Sarro, Raffaele Serra, Pietro Romeo and Luca Gallelli
Reports 2022, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010003 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4536
Abstract
Lower-extremity ulcers are associated with an increasing prevalence and significant economic and social costs. To date, there is no high-quality evidence related to an optimal treatment algorithm. A multimodal approach is needed particularly in patients with comorbidity and polytherapy. Herein, we report the [...] Read more.
Lower-extremity ulcers are associated with an increasing prevalence and significant economic and social costs. To date, there is no high-quality evidence related to an optimal treatment algorithm. A multimodal approach is needed particularly in patients with comorbidity and polytherapy. Herein, we report the case of a 94-year-old Caucasian female with comorbidity and polytherapy who was admitted to our observation for a history (1 year) of chronic painful malleolar mixed ulcer. After clinical evaluation, she was treated with a twice daily pain relief therapy and with a weekly diamagnetic therapy protocol plus a local treatment. During the clinical examination, we documented a statistically significant improvement in both pain (VAS score from 8 to 2 p < 0.01) and foot ulcer (surface reduction from 6 cm × 4 cm to 2 cm × 2 cm, p < 0.01) at the sixth week of combined treatment. The ulcer completely healed at the ninth week. This is the first study to document the effect of diamagnetic therapy as an add-on therapy in the management of wound healing. In conclusion, even if high-quality evidence is still lacking, diamagnetic therapy might represent an interesting option as an add-on treatment for ulcer. Full article
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9 pages, 3336 KiB  
Case Report
A Unique Case of the Transformation of a Hepatic Leiomyoma into Leiomyosarcoma with Pancreatic Metastases: Review of the Literature with Case Presentation
by Anna Colagrande, Gerardo Cazzato, Salvatore Fedele, Valeria Andriola, Giuseppe Ingravallo, Leonardo Resta and Leonardo Vincenti
Reports 2022, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010002 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Primary hepatic leiomyoma (PHL) is a rare entity, with very few cases reported in the literature. Even more rarely, until now practically undescribed, is the transformation of a hepatic leiomyoma into leiomyosarcoma with pancreatic metastases. Here, we report a single case of the [...] Read more.
Primary hepatic leiomyoma (PHL) is a rare entity, with very few cases reported in the literature. Even more rarely, until now practically undescribed, is the transformation of a hepatic leiomyoma into leiomyosarcoma with pancreatic metastases. Here, we report a single case of the progression of PHL in primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma, with clinical–surgical and histopathological features, and we conducted a review of the literature of related cases that can be found. Full article
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14 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D Status in a Rural Italian Population
by Ornella Morsilli, Raffaella Guerriero, Luigi Palmieri, Cinzia Lo Noce, Tanja Zeller, Stefan Blankenberg, Anna Di Lonardo, Serena Vannucchi, Marco Gabbianelli and Chiara Donfrancesco
Reports 2022, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5010001 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2972
Abstract
Vitamin D is known as an antirachitic factor, although it also plays a critical role in several nonskeletal diseases. In our study, we evaluated vitamin D status and sex, age and seasonal association in a general population cohort living in central Italy. Data [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is known as an antirachitic factor, although it also plays a critical role in several nonskeletal diseases. In our study, we evaluated vitamin D status and sex, age and seasonal association in a general population cohort living in central Italy. Data from 1174 men and 2274 women aged 20–81 were analyzed, and stored serum samples were assayed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Vitamin D was low in both sexes with values significantly lower in women than in men; furthermore, its deficiency was highly correlated with age. The younger men had just sufficient 25(OH)D levels (32.3 ng/mL ± 13.2), which decreased with increasing age. The younger women showed insufficient 25(OH)D levels (24.8 ng/mL ± 11.9) that, as with men, further decreased with increasing age. This study demonstrated that hypovitaminosis D may be a very frequent condition also in a rural central Italian area with remarkable solar irradiation throughout the year. Our data clearly indicated an evident seasonal trend: at the end of the winter, serum 25(OH)D levels of the examined cohort were below the official sufficient value for both adult sexes. Sufficient levels were just reached in summer for men and only at the end of summer for young women. Full article
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