Characterization of Gene Families Encoding Beta-Lactamases of Gram-Negative Rods Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Vegetables in Mexico City
AbstractBeta-lactam resistant bacteria, which are commonly resident in tertiary hospitals, have emerged as a worldwide health problem because of ready-to-eat vegetable intake. We aimed to characterize the genes that provide resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from five commercial salad brands for human consumption in Mexico City. In total, twenty-five samples were collected, grown in blood agar plates, and the bacteria were biochemistry identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done. The carried family genes were identified by endpoint PCR and the specific genes were confirmed with whole genome sequencing (WGS) by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Twelve positive cultures were identified and their microbiological distribution was as follows: 8.3% for Enterobacter aerogene (n = 1), 8.3% for Serratia fonticola (n = 1), 16.7% for Serratia marcesens (n = 2), 16.7% for Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 2), and 50% (n = 6) for Enterobacter cloacae. The endpoint PCR results showed 11 colonies positive for blaBIL (91.7%), 11 for blaSHV (91.7%), 11 for blaCTX (97.7%), 12 for blaDHA (100%), four for blaVIM (33.3%), two for blaOXA (16.7%), two for blaIMP (16.7%), one for blaKPC (8.3%), and one for blaTEM (8.3%) gen; all samples were negative for blaROB, blaCMY, blaP, blaCFX and blaLAP gene. The sequencing analysis revealed a specific genotype for Enterobacter cloacae (blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1, blaKPC-2); Serratia marcescens (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M-3, blaDHA-1, blaVIM-2); Klebsiella pneumoniae (blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1); Serratia fonticola (blaSHV-12, blaVIM-1, blaDHA-1); and, Enterobacter aerogene (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M-1, blaDHA-1, blaVIM-2, blaOXA-9). Our results indicate that beta-lactam-resistant bacteria have acquired integrons with a different number of genes that provide pan-resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, oxacillins, cefalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, and imipenems. View Full-Text
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Vázquez-López, R.; Solano-Gálvez, S.; León-Chávez, B.A.; Thompson-Bonilla, M.R.; Guerrero-González, T.; Gómez-Conde, E.; Martínez-Fong, D.; González-Barrios, J.A. Characterization of Gene Families Encoding Beta-Lactamases of Gram-Negative Rods Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Vegetables in Mexico City. High-Throughput 2018, 7, 36.
Vázquez-López R, Solano-Gálvez S, León-Chávez BA, Thompson-Bonilla MR, Guerrero-González T, Gómez-Conde E, Martínez-Fong D, González-Barrios JA. Characterization of Gene Families Encoding Beta-Lactamases of Gram-Negative Rods Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Vegetables in Mexico City. High-Throughput. 2018; 7(4):36.Chicago/Turabian Style
Vázquez-López, Rosalino; Solano-Gálvez, Sandra; León-Chávez, Bertha A.; Thompson-Bonilla, María R.; Guerrero-González, Tayde; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Martínez-Fong, Daniel; González-Barrios, Juan A. 2018. "Characterization of Gene Families Encoding Beta-Lactamases of Gram-Negative Rods Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Vegetables in Mexico City." High-Throughput 7, no. 4: 36.
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