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Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2017) – 7 articles

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4295 KiB  
Article
Adjoint-Based Design Optimisation of an Internal Cooling Channel U-Bend for Minimised Pressure Losses
by Tom Verstraete, Lasse Müller and Jens-Dominik Müller
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp2020010 - 21 Jun 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5025
Abstract
The success of shape optimisation depends significantly on the parametrisation of the shape. Ideally, it defines a very rich variation in shape, allows for rapid grid generation of high quality, and expresses the shape in a standard Computer Aided Design (CAD) representation. While [...] Read more.
The success of shape optimisation depends significantly on the parametrisation of the shape. Ideally, it defines a very rich variation in shape, allows for rapid grid generation of high quality, and expresses the shape in a standard Computer Aided Design (CAD) representation. While most existing parametrisation methods fail at least one of these criteria, this work introduces a novel parametrisation method, which satisfies all three. A tri-variate B-spline volume is used to define the volume to be optimised. The position of the external control points are used as design parameters, while the internal control points are repositioned to ensure regularity of the transformation. The grid generation process transforms a Cartesian grid (defined in parametric space) to the physical space using the tri-variate net of control points. This process guarantees a high grid quality even for large deformations, and has extremely low computational cost as it only involves a transformation from parameter space to physical space. This allows the computation of the grid sensitivities with respect to the design variables at a fraction of the cost of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) iteration, therefore allowing the use of one-shot methods. This novel parametrisation is applied to the shape optimisation of a U-bend passage of a turbine-blade serpentine-cooling channel with the objective to minimise pressure losses. A steady state, Reynolds-Averaged, density-based Navier-Stokes solver is used to predict the pressure losses at a Reynolds number of 40,000. The sensitivities of the objective function with respect to the control points are computed using a hand-derived adjoint solver and geometry generation system. A one-shot approach is used to simultaneously converge flow, gradient and design, resulting in a rapid design approach with a design time equivalent to approximately 10 normal CFD runs, while still maintaining a CAD representation of the geometry. A large reduction in pressure loss is obtained, and the flow in the optimal geometry is analysed in detail. Full article
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306 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Approximations Embodied in the Momentum Theory as Applied to the NREL PHASE VI Wind Turbine
by Rodolfo Bontempo and Marcello Manna
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp2020009 - 15 Jun 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4412
Abstract
This paper investigates the impact of the standard approximations embodied in the well-known Momentum Theory on its performance prediction capabilities. To this aim, the results of the momentum theory, which is still widely used in all Blade Element/Momentum codes for the analysis and/or [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the impact of the standard approximations embodied in the well-known Momentum Theory on its performance prediction capabilities. To this aim, the results of the momentum theory, which is still widely used in all Blade Element/Momentum codes for the analysis and/or design of wind turbines, are compared with those obtained with an actuator disk model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques. In this method, the axisymmetric and steady Euler equations are solved with a classical finite volume approach, while the turbine effects are modelled through a set of axial and tangential body forces distributed over a disk shaped region representing the rotor swept surface. Since this method does not rely on the momentum theory simplifying assumptions, it can be suitably employed to verify the momentum theory validity. The analysis is carried out using the well documented experimental data of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Phase VI wind turbine. Full article
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3279 KiB  
Article
Linear Stability Prediction of Vortex Structures on High Pressure Turbine Blades
by Markus Zauner, Neil D. Sandham, Andrew P. S. Wheeler and Richard D. Sandberg
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp2020008 - 26 May 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5197
Abstract
Velocity profiles are extracted from time- and span-averaged direct numerical simulation data, describing the flow over a high-pressure turbine vane linear cascade near engine-scale conditions with reduced inlet disturbance levels. Based on these velocity profiles, local as well as non-local linear stability analysis [...] Read more.
Velocity profiles are extracted from time- and span-averaged direct numerical simulation data, describing the flow over a high-pressure turbine vane linear cascade near engine-scale conditions with reduced inlet disturbance levels. Based on these velocity profiles, local as well as non-local linear stability analysis of the boundary-layer over the suction side of the vane is carried out in order to characterise a linearly unstable region close to the trailing edge. The largest growth rates are found for oblique modes, but those are only slightly more unstable than 2D modes, which describe the locations and frequencies of most unstable modes very well. The frequencies of the most unstable linear modes predict with good accuracy the predominant frequencies found in the direct numerical simulations (DNS) close to the trailing edge. Full article
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4025 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Aerodynamic and Structural Performance of a Cooling Fan with Morphing Blade
by Alessio Suman, Annalisa Fortini, Nicola Aldi, Michele Pinelli and Mattia Merlin
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp2020007 - 23 May 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4850
Abstract
The concept of smart morphing blades, which can control themselves to reduce or eliminate the need for active control systems, is a highly attractive solution in blade technology. In this paper, an innovative passive control system based on Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is [...] Read more.
The concept of smart morphing blades, which can control themselves to reduce or eliminate the need for active control systems, is a highly attractive solution in blade technology. In this paper, an innovative passive control system based on Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is proposed. On the basis of previous thermal and shape characterization of a single morphing blade for a heavy-duty automotive cooling axial fan, this study deals with the numerical analysis of the aerodynamic loads acting on the fan. By coupling computational fluid dynamics and finite element method approaches, it is possible to analyze the actual blade shape resulting from both the aerodynamic and centrifugal loads. The numerical results indicate that the polymeric blade structure ensures proper resistance and enables shape variation due to the action of the SMA strips. Full article
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7231 KiB  
Article
Hot Streak Evolution in an Axial HP Turbine Stage
by Paolo Gaetani and Giacomo Persico
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp2020006 - 27 Apr 2017
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5858
Abstract
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the evolution of hot streaks generated by gas turbine burners in an un-cooled high-pressure turbine stage. The prescribed hot streaks were directed streamwise and characterized by a 20% over-temperature with respect to the [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the evolution of hot streaks generated by gas turbine burners in an un-cooled high-pressure turbine stage. The prescribed hot streaks were directed streamwise and characterized by a 20% over-temperature with respect to the main flow at the stage inlet. The hot streak was injected in four different circumferential positions with respect to the stator blade. Detailed temperature and aerodynamic measurements upstream and downstream of the stage, as well as in-between the blade rows, were performed. Measurements showed a severe temperature attenuation of the hot streaks within the stator cascade; some influence on the aerodynamic field was found, especially on the vorticity field, while the temperature pattern resulted in severe alteration depending on the injection position. Downstream of the rotor, the jet spread over the pitch above the midspan and was more concentrated at the hub. Rotor secondary flows were also enhanced by hot streaks. Full article
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2184 KiB  
Technical Note
On Initiation of Stall in Axial Flow Compressors
by Jerzy A. Owczarek
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(2), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp2020005 - 20 Apr 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3612
Abstract
This Technical Note calls attention to the fact that observed initiation of stall in an axial flow compressor can be explained by the pressure pulses reflecting between the stator and rotor blades. The phenomenon of reflection of pressure pulses between the rotor and [...] Read more.
This Technical Note calls attention to the fact that observed initiation of stall in an axial flow compressor can be explained by the pressure pulses reflecting between the stator and rotor blades. The phenomenon of reflection of pressure pulses between the rotor and stator blades of turbines was first observed in in 1965 and reported in 1966. It can occur in turbines and axial- flow compressors. Subsequently the reflecting pressure pulses were able to explain turbine and axial- flow compressor blade vibrations. Full article
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4688 KiB  
Review
Transition Models for Turbomachinery Boundary Layer Flows: A Review
by Erik Dick and Slawomir Kubacki
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(2), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijtpp2020004 - 11 Apr 2017
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 9085
Abstract
Current models for transition in turbomachinery boundary layer flows are reviewed. The basic physical mechanisms of transition processes and the way these processes are expressed by model ingredients are discussed. The fundamentals of models are described as far as possible, with a common [...] Read more.
Current models for transition in turbomachinery boundary layer flows are reviewed. The basic physical mechanisms of transition processes and the way these processes are expressed by model ingredients are discussed. The fundamentals of models are described as far as possible, with a common structure of the equations and with emphasis on the similarities between the models. Tests of models reported in the literature are summarized and our own test is added. A conclusion on the performance of models is formulated. Full article
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