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Instruments, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2018) – 4 articles

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10 pages, 1380 KiB  
Review
Cyclotron Production of Unconventional Radionuclides for PET Imaging: the Example of Titanium-45 and Its Applications
by Pedro Costa, Luís F. Metello, Francisco Alves and M. Duarte Naia
Instruments 2018, 2(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2020008 - 3 Jun 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5380
Abstract
Positron emitting radionuclides are used to label different compounds, allowing the study of the major biological systems using PET (positron emission tomography) imaging. Although there are several radionuclides suited for PET imaging, routine clinical applications are still based on a restrict group constituted [...] Read more.
Positron emitting radionuclides are used to label different compounds, allowing the study of the major biological systems using PET (positron emission tomography) imaging. Although there are several radionuclides suited for PET imaging, routine clinical applications are still based on a restrict group constituted by 18F, 11C, and, more recently, 68Ga. However, with the enlarged availability of low-energy cyclotrons and technical improvements in radionuclide production, the use of unconventional radionuclides is progressively more common. Several examples of unconventional radionuclides for PET imaging are being suggested, and 45Ti could be suggested as a model, due to its interesting properties such as its abundant positron emission (85%), reduced positron energy (β+ endpoint energy = 1040 keV), physical half-life of 3.09 h, and interesting chemical properties. This review aims to introduce the role of cyclotrons in the production of unconventional radionuclides for PET imaging while using 45Ti as an example to explore the potential biomedical applications of those radionuclides in PET imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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13 pages, 2847 KiB  
Article
A Nuclear Emulsion Detector for the Muon Radiography of a Glacier Structure
by Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Antonio Ereditato, Samuel Käser, Alessandro Lechmann, David Mair, Ryuichi Nishiyama, Ciro Pistillo, Paola Scampoli, Fritz Schlunegger and Mykhailo Vladymyrov
Instruments 2018, 2(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2020007 - 30 Apr 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5532
Abstract
Cosmic ray muons can be used to image the interior of geological sites provided that one employs detectors able to operate in the specific harsh conditions of the mountain environment. We designed and developed a detector exploiting the nuclear emulsion technique to assess [...] Read more.
Cosmic ray muons can be used to image the interior of geological sites provided that one employs detectors able to operate in the specific harsh conditions of the mountain environment. We designed and developed a detector exploiting the nuclear emulsion technique to assess the bedrock profile underneath an alpine glacier. Nuclear emulsions do not need any electric power supply or maintenance and allow for the measurement of the muon flux and direction behind a large target volume. The 3D density distribution of the material traversed by muons can then be assessed, bringing relevant information on the shape of the boundary between the glacial ice and the underlying bedrock. This new methodology in the geological field was recently tested in a campaign of measurements in the Jungfrau region of the central Swiss Alps. It was shown that the bedrock surface position can be measured with a resolution of about 5 % when the traversed target is about 100 m thick. Characteristics and performance of the method are reported here and demonstrate that muon radiography based on emulsion detectors represents a powerful tool for the geological study of glaciers. Full article
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11 pages, 11486 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Ultra-Fast Imaging and Neutron Emission from a Compact Dense Plasma Focus Fusion Device
by Nathan Majernik, Seth Pree, Yusuke Sakai, Brian Naranjo, Seth Putterman and James Rosenzweig
Instruments 2018, 2(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2020006 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5160
Abstract
Recently, there has been intense interest in small dense plasma focus (DPF) devices for use as pulsed neutron and X-ray sources. Although DPFs have been studied for decades and scaling laws for neutron yield versus system discharge current and energy have been established [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been intense interest in small dense plasma focus (DPF) devices for use as pulsed neutron and X-ray sources. Although DPFs have been studied for decades and scaling laws for neutron yield versus system discharge current and energy have been established (Milanese, M. et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 2003, 27, 77–81), there are notable deviations at low energies due to contributions from both thermonuclear and beam-target interactions (Schmidt, A. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 109, 1–4). For low energy DPFs (100 s of Joules), other empirical scaling laws have been found (Bures, B.L. et al., Phys. Plasmas 2012, 112702, 1–9). Although theoretical mechanisms to explain this change have been proposed, the cause of this reduced efficiency is not well understood. A new apparatus with advanced diagnostic capabilities allows us to probe this regime, including variants in which a piston gas is employed. Several complementary diagnostics of the pinch dynamics and resulting X-ray neutron production are employed to understand the underlying mechanisms involved. This apparatus is unique in its employment of a 50 fs laser-based shadowgraphy system that possesses unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. Full article
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15 pages, 14902 KiB  
Article
A Low-Cost, Simplified Platform of Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for Rapid, Forensic Evidence Screening on Portable Mass Spectrometric Instrumentation
by Patrick W. Fedick, William L. Fatigante, Zachary E. Lawton, Adam E. O’Leary, Seth. E. Hall, Ryan M. Bain, Stephen T. Ayrton, Joseph A. Ludwig and Christopher C. Mulligan
Instruments 2018, 2(2), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2020005 - 25 Mar 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 7066
Abstract
Portable mass spectrometers (MS) are becoming more prevalent due to improved instrumentation, commercialization, and the robustness of new ionization methodologies. To increase utility towards diverse field-based applications, there is an inherent need for rugged ionization source platforms that are simple, yet robust towards [...] Read more.
Portable mass spectrometers (MS) are becoming more prevalent due to improved instrumentation, commercialization, and the robustness of new ionization methodologies. To increase utility towards diverse field-based applications, there is an inherent need for rugged ionization source platforms that are simple, yet robust towards analytical scenarios that may arise. Ambient ionization methodologies have evolved to target specific real-world problems and fulfill requirements of the analysis at hand. Ambient ionization techniques continue to advance towards higher performance, with specific sources showing variable proficiency depending on application area. To realize the full potential and applicability of ambient ionization methods, a selection of sources may be more prudent, showing a need for a low-cost, flexible ionization source platform. This manuscript describes a centralized system that was developed for portable MS systems that incorporates modular, rapidly-interchangeable ionization sources comprised of low-cost, commercially-available parts. Herein, design considerations are reported for a suite of ambient ionization sources that can be crafted with minimal machining or customization. Representative spectral data is included to demonstrate applicability towards field processing of forensic evidence. While this platform is demonstrated on portable instrumentation, retrofitting to lab-scale MS systems is anticipated. Full article
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