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The Inhibition of Radial and Axial Micromovement of Bone Scaffold with Gelfoam® and Titanium Mesh Fixation and Its Effects on Osteointegration

1
Oral and Craniofacial Health Sciences Research, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, CB #7455, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea
3
Department of Orthodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
4
Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, CB #7455, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: 275 Brauer Hall, CB#7455, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7455, USA.
Methods Protoc. 2019, 2(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/mps2010020
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
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PDF [2305 KB, uploaded 26 February 2019]
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Abstract

A major drawback of nanocomposite scaffolds in bone tissue engineering is dimensional shrinkage after the fabrication process. Shrinkage yields gaps between the scaffold and host bone in the defect site and eventually causes failure in osteointegration by micromovement. The present study was conducted using titanium (Ti) mesh and Gelfoam® to prevent radial and axial micromovement, respectively. A critical-sized defect (CSD) was created in the center of the calvarium of Sprague Dawley rats to implant porous polydopamine-laced hydroxyapatite collagen calcium silicate (HCCS-PDA), a novel nanocomposite scaffold. Gelfoam® was applied around the edge of the defect, and then the HCCS-PDA scaffold was inserted in the defect area. Ti mesh was placed between the periosteum and skin right, above the inserted scaffold site. There were two test groups, with a fixture (Gelfoam® and Ti mesh) and without a fixture, each group contained five animals. The rats were sacrificed after three months post-operation. The explanted calvaria underwent micro-CT scanning and a push-out test to quantify osteointegration and mechanical strength between the scaffold and host bone. Histological analysis of undecalcified bone was performed by grinding resin infiltrated calvaria blocks to prepare 10 μm slices. Osteointegration was higher in the group with fixation than without fixation. Movement of the HCCS-PDA scaffold in the gap resulted in diminished osteointegration. With fixation, the movement was inhibited and osteointegration became prominent. Here we present a successful method of preventing axial and radial movement of scaffolds using Gelfoam® and Ti mesh. Applying this fixture, we expect that an HCCS-PDA scaffold can repair CSD more effectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical-sized defect (CSD); Gelfoam®; micromovement; osteointegration; titanium mesh critical-sized defect (CSD); Gelfoam®; micromovement; osteointegration; titanium mesh
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kwon, J.; Lee, D.J.; Kocher, M.; Kim, Y.-I.; Wu, T.-J.; Whitley, J.; Ko, C.-C. The Inhibition of Radial and Axial Micromovement of Bone Scaffold with Gelfoam® and Titanium Mesh Fixation and Its Effects on Osteointegration. Methods Protoc. 2019, 2, 20.

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