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Histories, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 9 articles

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10 pages, 626 KiB  
Essay
How Great Was the “Great Divide of Nature and Culture” in Europe? Philippe Descola’s Argument under Scrutinity
by Jon Mathieu
Histories 2022, 2(4), 542-551; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040036 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
In his much-discussed work Beyond Nature and Culture, anthropologist Philippe Descola gives central importance to the “great divide” between nature and culture in European history. According to him, the “naturalism” created by this gap is at the heart of Western modernity and [...] Read more.
In his much-discussed work Beyond Nature and Culture, anthropologist Philippe Descola gives central importance to the “great divide” between nature and culture in European history. According to him, the “naturalism” created by this gap is at the heart of Western modernity and distinguishes it from the “others” on the planet. One can certainly agree with Descola that the nature-culture dualism cannot claim universal validity. However, the extent of the “great divide” created in Europe by early modern “rationalist” scholarship remains unclear. Methodologically, one should not limit oneself to the narrow history of science and philosophy, but also examine the linguistic, religious, and social history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Images of Nature—From the Middle Ages to (Non-)Western Modernities)
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26 pages, 640 KiB  
Essay
Scientific Publishing: Agents, Genres, Technique and the Making of Knowledge
by Josep Simon
Histories 2022, 2(4), 516-541; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040035 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3663
Abstract
The history of scientific publishing has been one of the most topical research subjects in the history of science during the last few decades. It has furthered scholarly communication with other disciplines, such as book history, the history of education and communication studies. [...] Read more.
The history of scientific publishing has been one of the most topical research subjects in the history of science during the last few decades. It has furthered scholarly communication with other disciplines, such as book history, the history of education and communication studies. It has contributed to the development of new conceptual and methodological tools for the study of the material culture of print, the replication of scientific knowledge in various media and the social appropriation of knowledge through reading. This field of research offers exemplary results on sources such as journals, encyclopedias and textbooks, and on configurations such as disciplines, specialization and the practices associated with our contemporary knowledge system and communication environment, which cut across academic departments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (New) Histories of Science, in and beyond Modern Europe)
12 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
The World Court and the Iran-Contra Scandal: Nicaragua, the International Court of Justice, Public Opinion, and the Origins of Iran-Contra
by Andrea Onate-Madrazo
Histories 2022, 2(4), 504-515; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040034 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3189
Abstract
In November 1986, a Lebanese weekly published an article stating that high level officials within the administration of U.S. President Ronald Reagan had sold weapons to an embargoed Iran and diverted the profits to counterrevolutionary forces fighting the government of Nicaragua. Both of [...] Read more.
In November 1986, a Lebanese weekly published an article stating that high level officials within the administration of U.S. President Ronald Reagan had sold weapons to an embargoed Iran and diverted the profits to counterrevolutionary forces fighting the government of Nicaragua. Both of these facts violated domestic and international law. What ensued was the Iran-Contra scandal that almost ended Reagan’s presidency and jeopardized the credibility of U.S. foreign policy. Drawing from periodicals from the U.S. and international presses, as well as U.S. Congressional records, this article demonstrates that studies on the origins of Iran-Contra have overlooked one critical cause of the scandal—a lawsuit that Nicaragua presented against the United States at the International Court of Justice in April 1984. While the case “Nicaragua v the United States of America” played an important causal role in the history of the Iran-Contra affair, its importance goes beyond mere causality. As this article demonstrates, the impact that this international lawsuit had on the origins of Iran-Contra elucidates the influence of public opinion on shaping domestic and foreign policy, on the extent to which foreign policy is driven by domestic political realities, and on the importance of international courts as the theaters where battles for legitimacy are waged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Political History)
38 pages, 25714 KiB  
Article
The Network of Early Modern Printers and Its Impact on the Evolution of Scientific Knowledge: Automatic Detection of Awareness Relationships
by Matteo Valleriani, Malte Vogl, Hassan el-Hajj and Kim Pham
Histories 2022, 2(4), 466-503; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040033 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3075
Abstract
This work describes a computational method for reconstructing clusters of social relationships among early modern printers and publishers, the most determinant agents for the process of transformation of scientific knowledge. The method is applied to a dataset retrieved from the Sphaera corpus, a [...] Read more.
This work describes a computational method for reconstructing clusters of social relationships among early modern printers and publishers, the most determinant agents for the process of transformation of scientific knowledge. The method is applied to a dataset retrieved from the Sphaera corpus, a collection of 359 editions of textbooks used at European universities and produced between the years 1472 and 1650. The method makes use of standard bibliographic data and fingerprints; social relationships are defined as “awareness relationships”. The historical background is constituted of the production and economic practices of early modern printers and publishers in the academic book market. The work concludes with empirically validating historical case studies, their historical interpretation, and suggestions for further improvements by utilizing machine learning technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in History)
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9 pages, 233 KiB  
Article
The History of Fieldwork
by Jeremy Vetter
Histories 2022, 2(4), 457-465; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040032 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2973
Abstract
Since the history of fieldwork emerged as a self-conscious area of study within the history of science, especially during the last quarter century, it has expanded its focus on place and practice into an ever wider range of disciplines, social and environmental settings, [...] Read more.
Since the history of fieldwork emerged as a self-conscious area of study within the history of science, especially during the last quarter century, it has expanded its focus on place and practice into an ever wider range of disciplines, social and environmental settings, scales, analytical frameworks, and connections with adjacent disciplines and sub-disciplines. After reviewing some of the foundational scholarly works on the history of scientific fieldwork, this essay identifies and discusses some important recent patterns in scholarship. Historians of fieldwork have increasingly attempted to connect their work to other disciplines such as geography, and to other historical subfields such as environmental history, agricultural history, and the history of capitalism, with increasing success at cross-fertilization despite ongoing tensions arising from significant methodological differences. At the same time, scholars have not only linked their work to a wider variety of social and environmental places, including colonial and postcolonial settings, as well as extreme environments, but have also striven more deliberately to understand the emergence of knowledge through fieldwork at larger scales beyond the local, such as regional, continental, oceanic, and global environments. Scholars have also sought to understand more about the intersection of fieldwork with indigenous, folk, vernacular, and experiential knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (New) Histories of Science, in and beyond Modern Europe)
18 pages, 5660 KiB  
Article
Artistic Transfers from Islamic to Christian Art: A Study with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
by María Marcos Cobaleda
Histories 2022, 2(4), 439-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040031 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1505
Abstract
The aim of this article is to present the main aspects of the methodology employed in my research concerning artistic transfers in the late medieval Mediterranean from Islamic to Christian art, with a special focus on the Iberian Peninsula. The starting point of [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to present the main aspects of the methodology employed in my research concerning artistic transfers in the late medieval Mediterranean from Islamic to Christian art, with a special focus on the Iberian Peninsula. The starting point of the research was the selection of certain artistic elements incorporated into western Islamic art during the Almoravid period (in particular, the muqarnaṣ and the pointed-horseshoe arches), to analyse their spread in western Islamic art and beyond. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to create two databases and assess the distribution of these elements in the Mediterranean framework between the 12th and 15th centuries. As a result, different analyses and cartographic material developed with the GIS are thus included in this work. The GIS made it possible to analyse not only geographic aspects of the distribution of these elements but also other complex phenomena related to the muqarnaṣ and the pointed-horseshoe arches in a quantitative way, which allowed me to raise some preliminary hypotheses concerning the use and distribution of both elements in the Mediterranean framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Revisiting the Legacy of Al-Andalus)
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13 pages, 1258 KiB  
Article
Resisting Return to Dutch Colonial Rule: Political Upheaval after Japanese Surrender during the Independence Movement in Sulawesi, Indonesia
by Lukman Nadjamuddin, Amar Ali Akbar, Adrian Perkasa, Farida R. Wargadalem and Wilman D. Lumangino
Histories 2022, 2(4), 426-438; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040030 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 3190
Abstract
Central Sulawesi is a part of Indonesia with a fascinating history during the revolutionary period (1945–1950), owing to several important events related to Indonesian sovereignty. This study uses historical methods to examine the involvement of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration and its effort [...] Read more.
Central Sulawesi is a part of Indonesia with a fascinating history during the revolutionary period (1945–1950), owing to several important events related to Indonesian sovereignty. This study uses historical methods to examine the involvement of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration and its effort to recolonize the area. The Malino Conference, which led to the formation of the State of East Indonesia, was intended to legitimize the federated state under Dutch control and reduce the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. The Central Sulawesi Indonesian People’s Struggle Party is a unification of political parties that consistently maintained Central Sulawesi as part of the Republic of Indonesia, strengthening its bargaining position with the Dutch. This situation brought strong pressure to bear upon the Netherlands to immediately recognize the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Political History)
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21 pages, 2093 KiB  
Essay
Bearing the Scars: Access to Growth and the Age of Knowledge
by Julia Wardley-Kershaw and Klaus R. Schenk-Hoppé
Histories 2022, 2(4), 405-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040029 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
In this third paper in a series of four, the focus is to investigate the modern UK economy, considering a wider scope than economic growth and national performance. Since the beginnings of sustained economic growth, standard of living has increased dramatically in the [...] Read more.
In this third paper in a series of four, the focus is to investigate the modern UK economy, considering a wider scope than economic growth and national performance. Since the beginnings of sustained economic growth, standard of living has increased dramatically in the UK and life expectancy and health outcomes have improved. Economic growth has proven itself throughout history, and globally, as a transformative force to lift people out of poverty and improve standard of living. However, significant inequalities, which are contributing to negative health, social and economic outcomes for groups of the population, persist. A growing nation has become a divided nation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic History)
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31 pages, 1178 KiB  
Essay
Economic Growth in the UK: Growth’s Battle with Crisis
by Julia Wardley-Kershaw and Klaus R. Schenk-Hoppé
Histories 2022, 2(4), 374-404; https://doi.org/10.3390/histories2040028 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6504
Abstract
In this second paper in a series of four, we examine how the era of sustained economic growth also gave rise to recurring economic crises. Assessing the economic turbulence of the late 19th century and the early 20th century, and three prominent crises [...] Read more.
In this second paper in a series of four, we examine how the era of sustained economic growth also gave rise to recurring economic crises. Assessing the economic turbulence of the late 19th century and the early 20th century, and three prominent crises of the 20th and early 21st centuries: the period following the Second World War, the 1980–1981 Recession and the 2008 Financial Crisis, we survey how the economy and policy have reacted historically to shocks to growth, how crises have restructured industry and work, altering productivity and impacting future growth potential, and how the long-run growth trend persists despite periods of decline or stagnation. Full article
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