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Recycling, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 6 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The theory of collective action and the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework are [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Household Waste Sorting Participation in Developing Countries—A Meta-Analysis
Recycling 2020, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5010006 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Given the increasing efforts at improving waste management in developing countries, this study aimed to analyze factors that influence participation in household waste sorting. It thereby is the first review that extends the published literature on this topic. A meta-analysis was conducted that [...] Read more.
Given the increasing efforts at improving waste management in developing countries, this study aimed to analyze factors that influence participation in household waste sorting. It thereby is the first review that extends the published literature on this topic. A meta-analysis was conducted that analyzed twelve influencing factors. A moderate correlation was found for the most strongly influential factors—attitude, moral norm, subjective norm and perceived behavior control—which indicates that people’s perception of waste sorting is most influencing in prompting participation in household waste sorting in developing countries. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that knowledge, situational factors, such as physical conditions, and governmental incentives can influence participation in household waste sorting in developing countries but the relationship between those factors and other factors with high correlations should be studied further. Notably, socio-demographic factors have the weakest influence on the participation in waste sorting in developing countries despite a large body of research on such factors. It can be constructive to take the relationship across the identified factors and the participation in waste sorting into consideration when aiming to implement measures to increase the participation in waste management schemes through waste sorting. The outcome of this study may contribute to recommendations and policy suggestions regarding the promotion of sustainable waste management through household waste sorting in developing countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Fly Ash Brightness with Carbon and Iron Oxide Removal
Recycling 2020, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5010005 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 522
Abstract
In this paper, the brightness of fly ash is improved by carbon removal by heating and iron-containing oxides removal by acid treatment using a two-step method to realize the application of fly ash as filler or coating in the future, which not only [...] Read more.
In this paper, the brightness of fly ash is improved by carbon removal by heating and iron-containing oxides removal by acid treatment using a two-step method to realize the application of fly ash as filler or coating in the future, which not only increases the range of resource utilization of fly ash, but also reduces dust pollution. The modification results show that the brightness of fly ash reaches the maximum value of 38.27% ISO (Brightness unit) after decarburization by heating at 600 °C. On this basis, the Box–Benhnken design scheme is adopted to optimize the brightening process for removing iron-containing oxides in fly ash. Finally, when the concentration of hydrochloric acid is 15%, the acid leaching time is 0.75 h, the reaction temperature is 74 °C, and the brightness of fly ash can eventually increase to 43.92% ISO. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Collective Action in Waste Management: A Comparative Study of Recycling and Recovery Initiatives from Brazil, Indonesia, and Nigeria Using the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework
Recycling 2020, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5010004 - 01 Mar 2020
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Recycling and recovery provide not only a sustainable option to decrease the volume of waste that needs final disposal, but also a blueprint to a circular economy. However, rates of recycling/recovery still remain very low on a global scale. While it is important [...] Read more.
Recycling and recovery provide not only a sustainable option to decrease the volume of waste that needs final disposal, but also a blueprint to a circular economy. However, rates of recycling/recovery still remain very low on a global scale. While it is important to look for technology-based solutions to improve recycling/recovery activities, such solutions might not be necessarily affordable in many countries. A solution that involves the active participation of the population, on the other hand, has the potential to succeed in any country. The challenge is to attract and unite people to achieve such common goals. The theory of collective action and the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, that have been originally used in resource management, are two concepts that can be adapted to organize recycling/recovery initiatives. This manuscript discusses what recycling/recovery programs can learn from the theory of collective action and the IAD framework, through a qualitative comparative study of such initiatives from three different cities. They are; Curitiba in Brazil, Padang in Indonesia, and Akure in Nigeria. The cases show the potential benefits of both concepts, not only in formulating and implementing recycling/recovery programs but also in making corrective measures for continuous improvements. All cases also showed the importance of increasing awareness-raising to change public perception towards waste from being a nuisance to a valuable resource. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Elastomeric Composites Containing SBR Industrial Scraps Devulcanized by Microwaves: Raw Material, Not a Trash
Recycling 2020, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5010003 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Environmental concerns about waste management systems have stimulated the search for technological and economical alternatives that introduce waste as raw material for production cycles. In this sense, this study aimed to develop and characterize styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites that contain industrial rubber scraps [...] Read more.
Environmental concerns about waste management systems have stimulated the search for technological and economical alternatives that introduce waste as raw material for production cycles. In this sense, this study aimed to develop and characterize styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites that contain industrial rubber scraps devulcanized by microwaves (SBR-r) as a reinforcing filler. The scraps were ground under ambient conditions. From the obtained powder (SBR-r), composites were prepared, varying the exposure time of the powder to the microwaves (1, 2, and 3 min), as well as the SBR-r content. These composites were compared to a Reference sample (base formulation without SBR-r). The vulcanization parameters were determined by an oscillating disk rheometer. After vulcanization, the composites were characterized by mechanical properties (tensile and tear strength, and compression set). These properties were also evaluated after accelerated aging in an air oven and a UV chamber (ultraviolet light). The results indicated that as a result of increasing the exposure time of the waste to the microwaves, no significant influence in the composite properties was observed. Aged samples presented higher results as compared with the Reference sample (tensile strength up to 175% higher, tear strength up to 107% higher, and compression set up to 91% higher), which indicates the possibility of using these materials in technological applications, such as in the civil and automotive industries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Thermal Behavior of a Sustainable Room and Roof Prototype Using Recycled Waste Materials
Recycling 2020, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5010002 - 08 Feb 2020
Viewed by 562
Abstract
This work shows a proposed room prototype and its thermal behavior evaluation. The room was built by using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles filled with soil from the site for its walls and a roof made of multiple layers of reused materials. The construction [...] Read more.
This work shows a proposed room prototype and its thermal behavior evaluation. The room was built by using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles filled with soil from the site for its walls and a roof made of multiple layers of reused materials. The construction had a green roof and skylights that were constructed out of upcycled entire glass bottles. Thermal measurements were made indoors and outdoors over the course of one year. Temperature and humidity sensors were used for internal measurements, and, at the same time, a reference sensor recorded data that corresponded to external environmental conditions. The constructed building differed by an average of 8.5 °C from the reference measurements of the external environment and an average of 24.24% in relative humidity. Thermograms were taken from the outside walls, which reached 54.2 °C, while internal wall temperatures reached 25.5 °C. Additionally, a thermal transfer simulation of the prototype was accomplished by using COMSOL Multiphysics. Simulation results approximated the experimental data. The prototype had low daily thermal fluctuations, which was considered a desirable thermal behavior. These results, along with the self-building practices, low costs, and reuse of waste materials, makes this kind of building a potentially feasible alternative. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Recycling in 2019
Recycling 2020, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5010001 - 22 Jan 2020
Viewed by 542
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
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