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Comparative Life Cycle Environmental Impact Analysis of Lithium-Ion (LiIo) and Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) Batteries

School of Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
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Batteries 2019, 5(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010022
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract

Batteries have been extensively used in many applications; however, very little is explored regarding the possible environmental impacts for their whole life cycle, even though a lot of studies have been carried out for augmenting performance in many ways. This research paper addresses the environmental effects of two different types of batteries, lithium-ion (LiIo) and nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, in terms of their chemical constituents. Life cycle impact analysis has been carried out by the CML, ReCiPe, EcoPoints 97, IPCC, and CED methods. The impacts are considered in categories such as global warming, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. The results reveal that there is a significant environmental impact caused by nickel-metal hydride batteries in comparison with lithium-ion batteries. The reason behind these impacts is the relatively large amount of toxic chemical elements which are present as constituents of NiMH batteries. It can be anticipated that a better environmental performance can be achieved through optimization, especially by cautiously picking the constituents, taking into account the toxicity aspects, and by minimizing the impacts related to these chemicals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lithium-Ion (LiIo); Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH); environmental impact; greenhouse-gas emission; uncertainty analysis Lithium-Ion (LiIo); Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH); environmental impact; greenhouse-gas emission; uncertainty analysis
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Mahmud, M.A.P.; Huda, N.; Farjana, S.H.; Lang, C. Comparative Life Cycle Environmental Impact Analysis of Lithium-Ion (LiIo) and Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) Batteries. Batteries 2019, 5, 22.

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