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Article

Effect of Elevated Temperature and Excess Light on Photosynthetic Efficiency, Pigments, and Proteins in the Field-Grown Sunflower during Afternoon

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Department of Industrial Plants, Agricultural Institute Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Agrochemical Laboratory, Agricultural Institute Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Biology, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences Osijek, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Service of General, Legal and Personnel Affairs, Agricultural Institute Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Centre of Excellence for Biodiversity and Molecular Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Faculty for Dental Medicine and Health, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Barbara Hawrylak-Nowak, Małgorzata Majewska and Agnieszka Hanaka
Horticulturae 2022, 8(5), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8050392
Received: 30 March 2022 / Revised: 25 April 2022 / Accepted: 27 April 2022 / Published: 28 April 2022
This study examined the photosynthetic responses of two sunflower hybrids to elevated temperatures and excess light intensity in the flowering stage by measuring the chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) under morning and afternoon field conditions to determine the photosynthetic pigment contents and the relative accumulation of photosynthetic proteins. The morning environmental conditions were considered optimal, while the afternoon was characterised by elevated temperatures and excess light intensity. The minimum fluorescence intensity (F0), the electron-flux-reducing end electron acceptors at the photosystem I acceptor side per reaction centre (RE0/RC), and the D1 protein had significant, high, and positive correlations with the environmental conditions, which indicates that they were the most useful in the sunflower-stress-response research. In hybrid 7, the elevated temperatures and the excess light intensity resulted in the inactivation of the oxygen-evolving complex, which was indicated by the positive L, K, and J steps, the increase in the maximum quantum yield of PSII (TR0/ABS), the decrease in the electron transport further than the primary acceptor QA (ET0/(TR0-ET0)), the reduction in the performance index (PIABS), and the higher relative accumulation of the light-harvesting complex of the photosystem (LHCII). Hybrid 4 had smaller changes in the fluorescence curves in phases O–J and J–I, and especially in steps L, K, J, and I, and a higher PIABS, which indicates a more efficient excitation energy under the unfavourable conditions. As the tested parameters were sensitive enough to determine the significant differences between the sunflower hybrids in their photosynthetic responses to the elevated temperatures and excess light intensity in the flowering stage, they can be considered useful selection criteria. The development of more adaptable sunflower hybrids encourages sustainable sunflower production under stressful growing conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorophyll a fluorescence; temperature; solar radiation; tolerance; pigments; proteins chlorophyll a fluorescence; temperature; solar radiation; tolerance; pigments; proteins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Markulj Kulundžić, A.; Viljevac Vuletić, M.; Matoša Kočar, M.; Antunović Dunić, J.; Varga, I.; Zdunić, Z.; Sudarić, A.; Cesar, V.; Lepeduš, H. Effect of Elevated Temperature and Excess Light on Photosynthetic Efficiency, Pigments, and Proteins in the Field-Grown Sunflower during Afternoon. Horticulturae 2022, 8, 392. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8050392

AMA Style

Markulj Kulundžić A, Viljevac Vuletić M, Matoša Kočar M, Antunović Dunić J, Varga I, Zdunić Z, Sudarić A, Cesar V, Lepeduš H. Effect of Elevated Temperature and Excess Light on Photosynthetic Efficiency, Pigments, and Proteins in the Field-Grown Sunflower during Afternoon. Horticulturae. 2022; 8(5):392. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8050392

Chicago/Turabian Style

Markulj Kulundžić, Antonela, Marija Viljevac Vuletić, Maja Matoša Kočar, Jasenka Antunović Dunić, Ivana Varga, Zvonimir Zdunić, Aleksandra Sudarić, Vera Cesar, and Hrvoje Lepeduš. 2022. "Effect of Elevated Temperature and Excess Light on Photosynthetic Efficiency, Pigments, and Proteins in the Field-Grown Sunflower during Afternoon" Horticulturae 8, no. 5: 392. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8050392

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