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Open AccessArticle

Pesticide Residues and Stuck Fermentation in Wine: New Evidences Indicate the Urgent Need of Tailored Regulations

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, degli Alimenti e dell’Ambiente, Università di Foggia, via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy
2
Promis Biotech srl, via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
3
Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Unità Operativa di Supporto di Lecce, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010023
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Microbiological Quality)
For three consecutive years, an Italian winery in Apulia has dealt with sudden alcoholic stuck fermentation in the early stages of vinification process, i.e., typical defects addressable to bacterial spoilage. After a prescreening trial, we assessed, for the first time, the influence of the commercial fungicide preparation Ridomil Gold® (Combi Pepite), containing Metalaxyl-M (4.85%) and Folpet (40%) as active principles, on the growth of several yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces spp.) and lactic acid bacteria of oenological interest. We also tested, separately and in combination, the effects of Metalaxyl-M and Folpet molecules on microbial growth both in culture media and in grape must. We recalled the attention on Folpet negative effect on yeasts, extending its inhibitory spectrum on non-Saccharomyces (e.g., Candida spp.). Moreover, we highlighted a synergic effect of Metalaxyl-M and Folpet used together and a possible inhibitory role of the fungicide excipients. Interestingly, we identified the autochthonous S. cerevisiae strain E4 as moderately resistant to the Folpet toxicity. Our findings clearly indicate the urgent need for integrating the screening procedures for admission of pesticides for use on wine grape with trials testing their effects on the physiology of protechnological microbes. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticide; fungicide; wine; alcoholic fermentation; yeast; stuck fermentation pesticide; fungicide; wine; alcoholic fermentation; yeast; stuck fermentation
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Russo, P.; Berbegal, C.; De Ceglie, C.; Grieco, F.; Spano, G.; Capozzi, V. Pesticide Residues and Stuck Fermentation in Wine: New Evidences Indicate the Urgent Need of Tailored Regulations. Fermentation 2019, 5, 23.

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